Talk:Enterprise architecture

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Quotes by dates[edit]

I arranged the quotes by date and (re)added the three periods 1980s/1990s/2000s because this concept is evolving over time from IT oriented to Business focussed. When more quotes will added, this will become more obvious.

For example in the 1980s the term EA is not being used untill the end of the 1980s. So to complete the picture here, I will probably have to search for and add quotes which are about the similar subject without the term beeing used. -- Marcel Douwe Dekker 09:15, 2 December 2009 (UTC)

Quote removed[edit]

1960s[edit]

  • The term architecture is used here to describe the attributes of a system as seen by the programmer, i.e., the conceptual structure and functional behavior, as distinct from the organization of the data flow and controls, the logical design, and the physical implementation. i. Additional details concerning the architecture,
Further comment

The above quote was removed here, with the argument "remove off-topic: it's about computer operating systems, not systems of business operations". Now this quote was mentioned in an article related to enterprise architecture, which mentioned that this was the first time that the term architecture was used in the context of computer science. Since then all kinds of different types of architecture have been defined here, and enterprise architecture wants to covers (most of) them. Yet, I do agree this quote, was out of line with the rest, since the newt quote is from 1982. -- Mdd (talk) 21:28, 23 July 2013 (UTC)

It was Marc Lankhorst (2013) Enterprise Architecture at Work: Modelling, Communication and Analysis. p. 304, who commented "In their research note Amdahl et al. (1964) give probably the first definition of architecture in the IT world..." This publication, according to Google Scholar cited 710 times, is one of the most cited books in EA. -- Mdd (talk) 21:34, 23 July 2013 (UTC)

1980s[edit]

  • In the last few years, an information resources management concept has emerged as a focus of managing information activities. Although lacking a concise or universal definition, the IRM concept has become a framework for planning more responsive and coordinated information management organization structures throughout Government and the private sector. In brief, IRM is viewed as an integration of management responsibilities for the control of information-related activities and related processes. It includes the planning and management of information collection, use, and dissemination as well as management of information technology.
United States Department of Agriculture, Office of Operations and Finance, 1981
  • Historically, information management has been a fragmented activity shared among the traditionally independent elements of an organization. Many of the critical data-handling activities (payroll, invoices, payments, inventories, etc.) of an organization have been located in the administrative or financial management offices. Automation of these activities has resulted in placing management responsibilities for computers and information systems in the office of an organization's administrator or controller. Since information-related programs also may be administered by other elements in an organization, in many instances a dispersed information management structure has resulted. For example, activities such as information and library services, statistical functions, information programs, and associated activities (policy, reports, management, procurement, and communications) may not be centrally managed. Often, responsibility for managing these activities and services is shared, and in some instances the jurisdictional responsibility may not be clear. As a result of this fragmented approach, information resources sometimes have been poorly managed and inappropriately used.
    The current rationale for comprehensive management of information-related activities is that these activities contribute to an organization's effectiveness. According to the general IRM concept, the IRM office within an organization should provide a central focus for all those information activities that support and serve the organization. Also, this office should reflect the organization's specific directions and goals and be consistent with good management practices. The objectives and goals of the IRM office should be formulated to provide a cohesive management framework consistent with organization requirements and values. The IRM policies and procedures should provide a foundation for developing the information architecture and relevant programs required by the organization.
  • The design of a Database Management System (DBMS) cannot on the whole be isolated from the structural view the Database Architecture (DBA) wishes to adopt or indeed impose upon the enterprise. The overall structural picture of the database environment we propose evolves around the three major levels or logical schema, internal schema and subschema. However, these are considered part of the intra-enterprise realm and may not necessarily be adequate to describe inter-enterprise architectures (i.e structures and relationships between independent companies) and information types.
    • Emmanuel J. Yannakoudakis (1988) The architectural logic of database systems. p. 104
  • This volume is an in-depth analysis of information system concepts, with the aim of improving the conceptual foundation of information systems. Most of the papers treat concepts for modelling and specifying parts of the real world, while a few papers address architectural issues of information systems. Various formalisation and axiomatic approaches are presented, as well as taxonomies and approaches to evaluate and compare systems of concepts.
    • Eckhard D. Falkenberg, Paul Lindgreen, International Federation for Information Processing. Technical Committee for Information Systems, IFIP WG 8.1 eds. (1989) Information system concepts: an in-depth analysis : proceedings of the IFIP TC 8/WG 8.1 Working Conference on Information System Concepts: an in-depth analysis Namur, Belgium, 18-20 October, 1989. North-Holland, 1989 (Abstract)
  • MIS plans compete with many other potential business investments and business problems for the attention of senior management. Consequently, a strategic planning methodology should not only produce a plan linked to business planning but also should create a persuasive case for its support. This article examines the state of the art in strategic planning in terms of enterprisewide information management (EwIM), which is a set of concepts and tools that enable MIS managers to plan, organize, implement, and control information resources to meet current and future strategic goals.
    • Marilyn M. Parker & Robert J. Benson (1989) "Enterprisewide Information Management: State-of-the-Art Strategic Planning." Journal of Information Systems Management Vol 6 (3). p. 14–23. Abstract
  • At the heart of the book are the functional areas of an industrial firm. Although the data structures are thereby designed according to functional area the integration principle of supra-functional processing of tasks occupies the foreground. This book aims to achieve both a scientifically-based procedural method and a practically relevant, tried and tested approach. The author's experience of developing and introducing integrated information systems in several large industrial firms is incorporated in the treatment presented.
    • August-Wilhelm Scheer (1989) Enterprise-wide Data Modelling: Information Systems in Industry. Springer-Verlag, p. vi

1990s[edit]

FAA'S general-purpose data-processing needs will grow at a rate of 30 percent per year over the next 10 years
- US GAO, 1990
  • On February 27,1989, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) issued a request for proposals for its largest and most complex general-purpose data-processing acquisition to date: the Computer Resources Nucleus (CORN) project. CORN is intended to meet the agency’s general-purpose data-processing needs for up to 10 years in the following mission and program areas:
    • airport and aviation activity;
    • air traffic control and airspace (excluding real-time air-traffic control systems);
    • aviation safety;
    • national airspace system facilities;
    • financial, materiel, and human resources; and
    • management support.
FAA currently supports these areas with its own in-house, general-purpose data-processing resources called the “Common System.” The Common System is made up of one International Business Machines 3084 computer and 22 Data General MV/16000 computers distributed among 12 agency facilities: headquarters, 9 regional offices, and 2 centers. The major hardware components of this system were installed and upgraded during the 1980s.
In March 1989, we issued a report that provided information about the CORN project’s objectives, cost estimates, and implementation approach. The report highlighted the tenfold increase in estimated project cost from $148 million to $1.6 billion-that occurred as the project evolved between 1986 and 1987.
In project documents supporting the need for CORN, project officials maintain that the agency’s current general-purpose data-processing needs are not being met by the Common System. Specifically, they assert the capacity of the Common System is saturated, causing average response times of 4 seconds that result in substantial loss of staff productivity. They estimate that FAA'S general-purpose data-processing needs will grow at a rate of 30 percent per year over the next 10 years...
  • United States General Accounting Office (1990) FAA PROCUREMENT : Major Data-Processing Contract Should Not Be Awarded. Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Transportation and Related Agencies, Committee on Appropriations, House of Representatives. p. 8 Introduction
  • Comment: The increase in IT costs, as described in this example, has been a mayor factor in the cry for Enterprise Architecture.
  • Star Enterprise is a joint venture partnership between Texaco Inc. and the Saudi Arabian Oil Company. Created in 1988, it became fully operational on January 1, 1989. This new organization inherited staff, facilities, and information resources existing within Texaco Inc. at the time of formation. A significant opportunity for the new organization was to create a new Enterprise Information Technology Architecture to support business functions and management decision making. While this venture was an opportunity, it was also a challenge because of the existing information technology that was comprised of incompatible hardware and nonintegrated systems. This paper describes the architecture that emerged and reviews its current status. Two major contributions of the paper are to identify the principles upon which the architecture is being created and to review what has been learned to date in the process of implementing the architecture.
    • Gary L. Richardson, Brad M. Jackson, and Gary W. Dickson (1990). "A principles-based enterprise architecture: lessons from Texaco and Star Enterprise." MIS quarterly Vol. 14, No. 4, Dec. 1990. p. 385. (abstract)
  • The objective of Computer-Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) is the appropriate integration of enterprise operations by means of efficient information exchange within the enterprise with the help of Information Technology (IT). Integration includes the physical and logical connection of processes by means of data communications technology operating to specified standards, but also the integration of enterprise functions as welt as enterprise information. Generalized models and an open systems architecture are required to reduce the system complexity to a manageable level. They are used to identify the principal components, processes, constraints and information sources used to describe a manufacturing enterprise progressing towards CIM. In this paper, the basic concepts of an open-systems architecture for CIM called CIM-OSA are presented. The function view of the CIM-OSA modelling framework is discussed. CIM-OSA provides a unique set of advanced features to model functionality and behaviour of CIM systems at three distinct levels (requirements definition, design specification and implementation description).
    • François Vernadat & H. Jorysz (1990). "CIM-OSA Part I: Total Enterprise Modelling and Function View", In: Int. J. Computer Integrated Manufacturing, 3(3), p. 144-156. Abstract.
  • I have been working in the area of a framework for information systems architecture for about 20 years. The broadest term for this area might be called Enterprise Analysis. The whole concept of Enterprise Analysis is to understand the enterprise as a system in its own right before you start to overlay against that enterprise the information infrastructure required to support it. This concept has been around for a long time. I will be focusing on a subset of the enterprise analysis, the information systems architecture, for a few minutes. Why is information systems architecture so significant to us? For many years, the rest of the data processing community and the business community have thought of us as "the people where the rubber meets the sky" ; it's a little esoteric. However, several things are happening that are forcing these issues out on the front burner, not only in the technology management environment but also in the business environment. In the technology management environment, the fundamental driver is the price performance of the technology. The price performance stated by the hardware people has been 106 over a 20 year period. This level of improvement is expected over the next 20 years.
    • John Zachman (1990) "Data architecture: The transition from business model to data model". In: Judith J. Newton, Frankie E. Spielman eds. Data Administration: Standards & Techniques. p. 1
  • The challenge is one of planning for and implementing something new — an enterprise "architecture" which exploits through a global computer and communications infrastructure which ties the corporation together worldwide.
    • From: BusinessWeek (1991). Nr. 3234-3237. p. 146
  • A major change is occurring in the nature of work and the way that organizations relate to a rapidly changing environment. Many enterprises (and management teams) face obsolescence because of their inability to respond and adapt to this new situation. Enterprises can adapt if top management designs an appropriate information infrastructure, one which leverages human learning. A set of change processes, known as enterprise engineering, equips organizations to move towards such an infrastructure.
    • James H. Brown and Julian Watts (1992). "Enterprise engineering: building 21st century organizations." The Journal of Strategic Information Systems Vol 1 (5): p. 243-249. (Abstract)
  • Enterprise operation efficiency is seriously constrained by the inability to provide the right information, in the right place, at the right time. In spite of significant advances in technology it is still difficult to access information used or produced by different applications due to the hardware and software incompatibilities of manufacturing and information processing equipment. But it is this information and operation knowledge which makes up most of the business value of the enterprise and which enables it to complete in the market place. Therefore, sufficient and timely information access is a prerequisite for its efficient use in the operation of enterprises... The Open System Architecture for CIM... CIMOSA concepts provide operation structuring bases on cooperating processes. Enterprise operations are represented in terms of functionality and dynamic behavior (control flow). Information needed and produced, as well as resources and organisational aspects relevant in the course of the operation are modelled in the process model. However, the different aspects may be viewed separately for additional structuring and detailing during the enterprise engineering process.
    • Esprit consortium Amice eds. (1993) CIMOSA Open System Architecture for CIM Preface
  • There is a paradigm shift towards a distributed and integrated enterprise. Currently, computer systems that support enterprise functions were created independently. This hampers enterprise integration Therefore, there is a need for a computer based data model which provides a shared and well defined terminology of an enterprise, and has the capability to deductively answer common sense questions.
    This paper discusses how TOVE tackles these needs by defining a framework for modeling generic level representations such as activities, time, and resources. Since there has never been a well-defined set of criteria to evaluate such models, this paper also introduces a set of evaluation criteria which may be used to evaluate modelling efforts.
  • It is clear that even though information technology (I/T) has evolved from its traditional orientation of administrative support toward a more strategic role within an organization, there is still a glaring lack of fundamental frameworks within which to understand the potential of I/T for tomorrow's organizations. In this paper, we develop a model for conceptualizing and directing the emerging area of strategic management of information technology. This model, termed the Strategic Alignment Model, defined in terms of four fundamental domains of strategic choice: business strategy, information technology strategy, organizational infrastructure and processes, and information technology infrastructure and processes-each with its own underlying dimensions.
  • Distributed processing, as a discipline, is now at a point where the effects of technological change and its implications for ways of working can be considered at all levels... Activities related to the development of computing systems can be initially distinguished into:
    • concepts, theories and models
    • specifications constructed according to these theories
    • modelling processes - that is, the methods, tools and techniques used in the construction of the specifications and the implementation of systems based on the specifications.
This distinction leads to the idea of a number of frameworks in which practical considerations of the design and implementation of large complex systems are placed relative to one another.
Design can be viewed as a series of transformations. Verification and validation are the means used to check that the transformations are appropriate. Verification checks that information has been preserved and validation checks that the transformed system is fit for purpose. These ideas of verification and validation are used to relate the broad areas of requirements, design, development and support. Non-operational requirements are viewed as providing a suitable means of support to the validation process.
Functional Groups and Processes in an Integrated Electronics Enterprise, 1993
  • The strategic role of information systems in “extending” the enterprise is examined. A number of issues emerge as essential considerations in the strategic alignment of the investment in information technology and business strategy. Information technologies transform organizational boundaries, interorganizational relations, and marketplace competitive and cooperative practice. The paper presents a framework of strategic control that guides the planning and execution of these investments in information technology for business transformation, seeking increased understanding and influence. Emerging information technologies change the limits of what is possible in the leverage of strategic control through transformation of boundaries, relations, and markets.
    • Benn R. Konsynski (1993) "Strategic control in the extended enterprise." In: IBM systems journal Vol 32 (1). p. 111
  • The strategic use of information technology (I/T) is now and has been a fundamental issue for every business. In essence, I/T can alter the basic nature of an industry. The effective and efficient utilization of information technology requires the alignment of the I/T strategies with the business strategies, something that was not done successfully in the past with traditional approaches. New methods and approaches are now available. The strategic alignment framework applies the Strategic Alignment Model to reflect the view that business success depends on the linkage of business strategy, information technology strategy, organizational infrastructure and processes, and I/T infrastructure and processes... We [have looked] at why it may not be sufficient to work on any one of these areas in isolation or to only harmonize business strategy and information technology. One reason is that, often, too much attention is placed on technology, rather than business, management, and organizational issues. The objective is to build an organizational structure and set of business processes that reflect the interdependence of enterprise strategy and information technology capabilities. The attention paid to the linkage of information technology to the enterprise can significantly affect the competitiveness and efficiency of the business. The essential issue is how information technology can enable the achievement of competitive and strategic advantage for the enterprise.
    • Jerry N. Luftman, Paul R. Lewis, and Scott H. Oldach (1993) "Transforming the enterprise: The alignment of business and information technology strategies." IBM Systems Journal Vol 32 (1). p. 198 Abstract
  • Simply stated, competitive success flows to the company that manages to establish proprietary architectural control over a broad, fast-moving, competitive space.
    • C. Morris and C. Ferguson (1993); quoted in: L. Bass, P. Clements, and R. Kazman (1998) Software Architecture in Practice, Addison Wesley Longman. Chapter 2
  • A fundamental change is taking place in the nature and application of technology in business, a change with profound and far-reaching implications for companies of every size and shape. A multimillion dollar research program conducted by the DMR Group, Inc., studied more than 4,500 organizations in North America, Europe, and the Far East to investigate the nature and impact of changes in technology. The synthesis and analysis of this information indicate that information technology is going through its first paradigm shift. Driven by the demands of the competitive business environment and profound changes in the nature of computers, the information age is evolving into a second era. Computing platforms in most organizations today are not able to deliver the goods for corporate rebirth. It is only through open network computing that the open networked client/server enterprise can be achieved. In nontechnical language this book shows managers and professionals how to take immediate action for the short-term benefits of the new technology while positioning their organizations for long-term growth and transformation...
    • Don Tapscott and Art Caston (1993) Paradigm Shift: The New Promise of Information Technology. McGraw Hill, Inc. Abstract.
  • The coordination of information technology (IT) management presents a challenge to firms with dispersed IT practices. Decentralization may bring flexibility and fast response to changing business needs, as well as other benefits, but decentralization also makes systems integration difficult, presents a barrier to standardization, and acts as a disincentive toward achieving economies of scale. As a result, there is a need to balance the decentralization of IT management to business units with some centralized planning for technology, data, and human resources. Here we explore three major mechanisms for facilitating inter-unit coordination of IT management: structural design approaches, functional coordination modes, and computer-based communication systems. We define these various mechanisms and their interrelationships, and we discuss the relative costs and benefits associated with alternative coordination approaches. To illustrate the cost-benefit tradeoffs of coordination approaches, we present a case study in which computer-based communication systems were used to support team-based coordination of IT management across dispersed business units. Our analysis reveals possibilities for future approaches to IT coordination in large, dispersed organizations.
    • Gerardine DeSanctis and Brad M. Jackson (1994) "Coordination of information technology management: Team-based structures and computer-based communication systems." Journal of Management Information Systems Vol 10 (4). p. 85-110. Abstract
  • This paper is a summary of the major technical report of the IFAC/IFIP Task Force on Architectures for Integrating Manufacturing Activities and Enterprises. It presents a synopsis of the investigations of pertinent architectures undertaken, and the findings generated relating to the suitability of various architectures for the integration task. It also presents the Task Force's recommendations for achieving a “complete” architecture in terms of the necessary capabilities by “completing” a currently available architecture. The Task Force also outlined how a “best” architecture could be achieved by selecting and combining the best features of the available architectures.
    • T.J. Williams et al. (1994) "Architectures for integrating manufacturing activities and enterprises." Computers in industry Vol 24 (2). p. 111-139. Abstract
  • This paper presents the basic concepts which comprise the Purdue Enterprise Reference Architecture along with a description of its development and use. This architecture provides the capability for modelling the human component as well as the manufacturing or customer service component of an enterprise in addition to the information and control system component. This latter component is the major focus of most reference architectures and models available today for computer integrated manufacturing or complete enterprise study.
    This paper particularly points out those areas where this architecture differs from others available. In doing this it describes a new and unique method for defining the place of the human in the computer integrated plant or enterprise. It also develops the concept of customer service, which allowed the architecture, which was originally developed for computer integrated manufacturing, to be extended to define the development and operation of any enterprise regardless of the industry or field of endeavor involved.
    • Theodore J. Williams (1994). "The Purdue enterprise reference architecture." Computers in industry Vol 24 (2). p. 141-158. Abstract.
  • If a project has not achieved a system architecture, including its rationale, the project should not proceed to full-scale system development. Specifying the architecture as a deliverable enables its use throughout the development and maintenance process.
    • Barry Boehm (1995); quoted in: L. Bass, P. Clements, and R. Kazman (1998) Software Architecture in Practice, Addison Wesley Longman. Chapter 2
  • Enterprise Engineering is defined as that body of knowledge, principles, and practices having to do with the analysis, design, implementation and operation of an enterprise. In a continually changing and unpredictable competitive environment, the Enterprise Engineer addresses a fundamental question: “how to design and improve all elements associated with the total enterprise through the use of engineering and analysis methods and tools to more effectively achieve its goals and objectives”...
  • Issues of interoperability are receiving increasing attention as organizations move from mainframe-based “islands of automation” toward open, distributed computing environments, and as national efforts toward an “information superhighway” receive increasing attention. The demand for interoperability is driven by the accelerated construction of large-scale distributed systems for operational use.