A Targum is a translation of part of the Bible into Aramaic. Most targums are not literal translations but paraphrases incorporating commentary and amplifications. There are three extant targums on the Pentateuch (Onkelos, Jonathan and Neofiti), two on Esther and one on most other books of the Hebrew Bible.
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- The Earth was without form and void, desolate of people and empty of all animals
- Targum Jonathan for Genesis 1, 2 amplifying "The Earth was without form and void"
- And God called the light Day, and he made it so that the inhabitants of the world might labour during it
- Targum Jonathan for Genesis 1, 5 amplifying "And God called the light Day"
- God blessed the seventh day, more than all the days of the week
- Targum Jonathan for Genesis 2, 3
- Make for yourself sharp scalpels, and circumcise the sons of Israel
- Joshua 5, 2 improving on "flint knives"
- And the soul of my master will be hidden in the treasury of life before the Lord our God
- I Samuel 25, 29: Translator's comment is "Targum inserts belief in afterlife"
- His flesh became soft like turnip from fear.
- Ruth 3, 8 amplifying "he was afraid"
- The Aramaic Bible (translation of Targums into English, in 22 volumes) pub. T & T Clark