François Jacob

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François Jacob

François Jacob (17 June 1920 – 19 April 2013) was a French biologist who, together with Jacques Monod, originated the idea that control of enzyme levels in all cells occurs through regulation of transcription. He shared the 1965 Nobel Prize in Medicine with Jacques Monod and André Lwoff.


  • The dream of every cell is to become two cells.
    • Originated from paraphrase of a paragraph in Chance and Necessity (1970, p20) by Jacques Monod:
      • They not only obey them; they utilize them as a good engineer would, with maximum efficiency, to carry out the project and bring about the "dream" (as François Jacob put it) of every cell: to become two cells.
  • Evolution is a tinkerer, not an engineer.
    • Evolution and tinkering (1977)

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