Traditionalist theology (Islam)
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- To deny that God sits upon a throne or speaks to humankind is to deny both the Quran and divine attributes. But to take it literally is to make God corporeal wich amounts to tashbih, literal anthropomorphism. Both are incorrect. Quranic assertions about God, however, must be believed - but bilā kaif ā (without asking how). This last doctrine was originally developed by the othodox theologian and tradionist—jurist Ah.mad Ibn Hanbal, the founder of the last of the four Sunni schools of law. He was publicly flagelatted in Baghdad and incarcerated for his views during the rationalist inquisition. But his traditional views were to triumph later to become not only an incubus but an operative veto on the futher inquiry in the metaphisical obsurities of the Quran.