Chanakya (also known as Kautilya or Vishnu Gupta (c. 370–283 BC) was an Indian teacher, philosopher, and royal adviser. He was initially a professor of economics and political science at the ancient Takshashila University in Takshashila (in present day Pakistan. He managed the first Maurya emperor Chandragupta's rise to power at a young age. He played an important role in the establishment of the Maurya Empire, which was the first empire in archaeologically recorded history to rule most of the Indian subcontinent. Chanakya served as the chief advisor to both Chandragupta and his son Bindusara (whose son was Emperor Ashoka. Chanakya is credited with authoring two treatises said to be the first of its genre in the world – the Arthasastra (Economics), the ancient Indian political treatise; the Nitishastra, the Chanakya Niti, a treatise on the ideal way of life and his policies. His works predate Niccolò Machiavelli's by about 1,800 years. He is compared to Aristotle, the great Greek philosopher who taught Alexander as both had identical views on the republican forms of governance. His works which were lost towards the end of the Gupta dynasty could be discovered only in 1915.
- Whoever imposes severe punishment becomes repulsive to the people; while he who awards mild punishment becomes contemptible. But whoever imposes punishment as deserved becomes respectable. For punishment when awarded with due consideration, makes the people devoted to righteousness and to works productive of wealth and enjoyment; while punishment, when ill-awarded under the influence of greed and anger or owing to ignorance, excites fury even among hermits and ascetics dwelling in forests, not to speak of householders.
- Book I : "Concerning Discipline" Chapter 4 "Determination of the Place of Varta and of Dandaniti"
- If a king is energetic, his subjects will be equally energetic. If he is reckless, they will not only be reckless likewise, but also eat into his works. Besides, a reckless king will easily fall into the hands of his enemies. Hence the king shall ever be wakeful.
- Book I : "Concerning Discipline" Chapter 19 "The Duties of a King"
- All urgent calls he shall hear at once, but never put off; for when postponed, they will prove too hard or impossible to accomplish.
- Book I : "Concerning Discipline" Chapter 19
Section II Chanakya Niti
- Even a wise man comes to grief and feels depressions if he imparts instructions to a foolish disciple or when maintains a wicked wife or when comes in close contact with the miserable.
- A wicked wife, a foolish friend, an ill tongued servant and a house infested with serpents will undoubtedly bring death.
- One should save money against hard times, save his wife against spending or sacrificing the money and one should save self at the cost of the wife and the riches.
- Save your wealth against unforeseen calamities without thinking that a rich man has no fear of calamity. Wealth has supple legs. Even saved riches are destroyed.
- One should not inhabit a country where one gets no respect, no opportunity to earn once’s livelihood, where one has no friends or relatives, or from where one can not acquire knowledge.
- Test a servant while on his duty, and a relative in difficulty, test a friend in adversity, and a wife in misfortune.
- He is a true friend and sincere relative who cooperates and stands by in time of need, depression, misfortune, famine, a war, in a king’s court, or at he crematorium (the place of last rituals where the dead are put on a pyre).
- He who opts out for an uncertain thing leaving behind the certain things, loses that which is in possession and fails to get what is already perishable.
- If there is nectar in poison, it should be extracted; if gold is fallen in filth it should be taken out, washed and kept; if a low-born person possesses knowledge, he should be treated respectfully; in the same way a girl in the family of evil-doers be accepted, if she possess virtuous qualities.
- Women eat double than men. They have four times more wisdom than men, they have six times more courage, and eight times more sensual urge than men.
- Untruthfulness, rashness, guile, stupidity, avarice, unseemliness, and cruelty are a women’s natural flaws.
- It is a boon of extraordinary austerities to get healthy and delicious dishes, to eat them and to have a strong system to digest them, to have a beautiful socially accepted wife and to be virile in her company, and to have a longing and mental set up for charity in prosperity. All these are boons.
- Steven J. Rosen (June 2012). The Agni and the Ecstasy: Collected Essays of Steven J. Rosen. Arktos. pp. 201–. ISBN 978-1-907166-79-2.
- Virtuous persons and fruit-laden trees bow, but fools and dry sticks break because they do not bend.
- A person becomes great not be sitting on some high seat, but through higher qualities. Can a crow become an eagle by simply sitting on the top of a palatial building? (page 201
- The sounding of the mridanga (drum) in the kirtana (Devotional singing) is proclaiming loudly that those who have no devotion to Lord Krishna are very shameful and reprehensible. This is so because the mridanga sound diktum diktum, which means Oh! great shame! Oh! great shame!
- Religious austerities should be practiced alone, study by two, and singing by three. A jouney should be undertaken by four, agriculture by five, and war by many together.
- Learning is like a cow of desire. It, like her, yields in all seasons. Like a mother, it feeds you on your journey. Therefore learning is a hidden treasure.
- Attributed without citation in Hindi translation at . Chanakya Wisedom Quotes About Learning & Gaining Knowledge.. हिंदी साहित्य मार्गदर्शन. Retrieved on 25 November 2013.[specific citation needed]
- What is the use of having many sons if they cause grief and vexation? It is better to have only one son from whom the whole family can derive support and peacefulness.
- He who runs away from a fearful calamity, a foreign invasion, a terrible famine, and the companionship of wicked men is safe.
- Behavior alone it is that creates friends and foes
- Just as a good tree with scented flowers makes the entire forest perfumed and pleasant, so a good son enhances the glory of hisfamily
- All beings feel pleased by sweet speech, one should therefore talk sweet. What does it cost to do so?
- Never believe the wicked though they are sweet tongued. The honey is only in the tip of their tongue-the heart is full of venom