Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain (8 September 1828 – 24 February 1914) was an American college professor from the State of Maine, who volunteered during the American Civil War to join the Union Army. Although having no earlier education in military strategies, he became a highly respected and decorated Union officer, reaching the rank of brigadier general (and brevet major general). For his gallantry at Gettysburg, he was awarded the Medal of Honor. After the war, he entered politics as a Republican and served four one-year terms of office as Governor of Maine. He served on the faculty of, and as president of, his alma mater, Bowdoin College.
- The enemy seemed to have gathered all their energies for their final assault. We had gotten our thin line into as good a shape as possible, when a strong force emerged from the scrub wood in the valley, as well as I could judge, in two lines in echelon by the right, and, opening a heavy fire, the first line came on as if they meant to sweep everything before them. We opened on them as well as we could with our scanty ammunition snatched from the field.
It did not seem possible to withstand another shock like this now coming on. Our loss had been severe. One-half of my left wing had fallen, and a third of my regiment lay just behind us, dead or badly wounded. At this moment my anxietv was increased by a great rbar of musketry in my rear, on the farther or northerly slope of Little Round Top, apparently on the flank of the regular brigade, which was in support or Hazlett's battery on the crest behind us. The bullets from this attack struck into my left rear, and I feared that the enemy might have nearly surrounded the Little Round Top, and only a desperate chance was left for us. My ammunition was soon exhausted. My men were firing their last shot and getting ready to "club" their muskets.
It was imperative to strike before we were struck by this overwhelming force in a hand-to-hand fight, which we could not probably have withstood or survived. At that crisis, I ordered the bayonet. The word was enough. It ran like fire along the line, from man to man; and rose into a shout, with which they sprang forward upon the enemy, now not 30 yards away. The effect was surprising; many of the enemy's first line threw down their arms and surrendered. An officer fired his pistol at my head with one hand, while he handed me his sword with the other. Holding fast by our right, and swinging forward our left, we made an extended " right wheel," before which the enemy's second line broke and fell back, fighting from tree to tree, many being captured, until we had swept the valley and cleared the front of nearly our entire brigade.
- His official report on the Battle of Little Round Top, as published in the U.S. Congressional Record.
- My darling wife I am lying mortally wounded the doctors think, but my mind & heart are at peace [Jesus] Christ is my all-sufficient savior. I go to him. God bless & keep & comfort you, precious one. You have been a precious wife to me. To know & love you makes life & death beautiful. Cherish the darlings & give my love to all the dear ones. Do not grieve too much for me. We shall all soon meet Live for the children Give my dearest love to Father, Mother & Sallie & John Oh how happy to feel yourself forgiven God bless you evermore precious precious one Ever yours, Lawrence.
- Letter written to his wife after being wounded. (June 1864), as quoted in In the Hands of Providence : Joshua L. Chamberlain and the American Civil War (2001) by Alice Rains Trulock, p. 215
- You in my soul I see, faithful watcher by my cot-side long days and nights together through the delirium of mortal anguish, steadfast, calm, and sweet as eternal love. We pass now quickly from each other's sight; but I know full well that where beyond these passing scenes you shall be, there will be heaven!
- The Passing of the Armies : An account of the Army of the Potomac, based upon personal reminiscences of the Fifth Army Corps (1915), "The Last Review"
- Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain Digital Archive at Bowdoin College
- Chamberlain-Adams Family Papers.Schlesinger Library
- Short Chamberlain bio and photos of his boyhood home in Brewer, his home in Brunswick, his gravesite, and the family plot in Brewer
- Index to Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain's Pages
- Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain Biography
- Joshua Chamberlain: Maine's Favorite Son
- Tribute to Major General Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain
- Joshua L. Chamberlain, a Biographical Essay
- Medal of Honor recipients on Film
- Joshua L. Chamberlain Museum in Brunswick, Maine