Zeno of Citium
- Sometimes confused with Zeno of Elea
- The end may be defined as life in accordance with nature or, in other words, in accordance with our own human nature as well as that of the universe.
- As quoted by Diogenes Laërtius, in Lives of Eminent Philosophers: 'Zeno', 7.87
- The "end" here means “the goal of life.”
- Love is a God, who cooperates in securing the safety of the city.
- As quoted in Deipnosophists by Athenaeus, xiii. 561c.
- We have two ears and one mouth, so we should listen more than we say.
- As quoted in Diogenes Laërtius Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers, vii. 23.
- Variant translation: The reason why we have two ears and only one mouth is that we may listen the more and talk the less.
- No evil is honorable; but death is honorable; therefore death is not evil.
- A bad feeling is a commotion of the mind repugnant to reason, and against nature.
- As quoted in Tusculanae Quaestiones by Cicero, iv. 6.
- That which exercises reason is more excellent than that which does not exercise reason; there is nothing more excellent than the universe, therefore the universe exercises reason.
- As quoted in De Natura Deorum by Cicero, ii. 8.; iii. 9
- If melodiously piping flutes sprang from the olive, would you doubt that a knowledge of flute-playing resided in the olive? And what if plane trees bore harps which gave forth rhythmical sounds? Clearly you would think in the same way that the art of music was possessed by plane trees. Why, then, seeing that the universe gives birth to beings that are animate and wise, should it not be considered animate and wise itself?
- As quoted in De Natura Deorum by Cicero, ii. 8.
Quotes about Zeno
- The best exponent of anarchist philosophy in ancient Greece was Zeno (342-267 or 270 B.C.), from Crete, the founder of the Stoic philosophy, who distinctly opposed his conception of a free community without government to the state-Utopia of Plato. He repudiated the omnipotence of the State, its intervention and regimentation, and proclaimed the sovereignty of the moral law of the individual — remarking already that, while the necessary instinct of self-preservation leads man to egotism, nature has supplied a corrective to it by providing man with another instinct — that of sociability. When men are reasonable enough to follow their natural instincts, they will unite across the frontiers and constitute the Cosmos. They will have no need of law-courts or police, will have no temples and no public worship, and use no money — free gifts taking the place of the exchanges. Unfortunately, the writings of Zeno have not reached us and are only known through fragmentary quotations. However, the fact that his very wording is similar to the wording now in use, shows how deeply is laid the tendency of human nature of which he was the mouthpiece.
- Peter Kropotkin, in "Anarchism" article in Encyclopedia Britannica (1910) "The Historical Development of Anarchism", as quoted in Anarchism: A Collection of Revolutionary Writings (1927), p. 288