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İskenderun (Arabic: إسكندرونة), historically known as Alexandretta (Greek: Αλεξανδρέττα, 'little Alexandria') and Scanderoon, is a municipality and district of Hatay Province, Turkey. Its area is 247 km2, and its population is 251,682 (2022). It is on the Mediterranean coast. Located on an alluvial plain, the city was heavily damaged by powerful earthquakes in February 2023 and subsequent aftershocks, floods and fires.


  • Scandarone or Allexandretta is the Sea port of Alleppo. It is very unwholsome by reason of the huge high hills hindringe the approach of the Sunne Beames, untill nine or ten a Clocke in the morning, lyeinge in a great Marsh full of boggs, foggs and Froggs, the Topps of the Mountaines continually covered with Snowe, aboundinge with wild beasts, as Lyons, Wylde Boares, Jacalls, Porcupines, etc. Of the latter, there was one killed, brought aboard, and roasted, proveing very Savourie meate, haveing eaten part thereof myselfe, as also of a wild boare; great store of Wild fowle, haveing seene a flight of wild Swanns; aboundance of Fish.
    • Peter Mundy, Travels in Europe and Asia, ed. J. S. Courtney, Vol. 1 (1907), Relation I, pp. 19–20
  • The 14th [May 1599], havinge a freshe gale of wynde, we recovered the Cape Cansele, the which is neare unto Scandaroune. The 15th we came to an anker in the Roode before Scandaroune, the which is in the verrie bottom of all the straites as farr as any shipp can go. The 16th daye our Mr. Guner, tow of his mates, Mr. Chancie, our surgin, one of our Trumpeteres, my selfe, and my maete, John Harvie, every one of us havinge a muskett, with powder and shott, we wente ashore, and though the mountaynes thare be exsedinge heie so that no ship dare goo within tow myles of the shore, for feare of not havinge a wynde to carrie them out againe, yet betwyxte those mountains and the seae there be desarte placis, thicke woodes, and boges, whearin dothe breed score of wyld foule, and allso wyld beastes, namely swyne and foxes.
    We havinge entred into these woodes, thinkinge to kill som wylde foule, our myndes wear trabled to find oute som pathe waye, for feare of tearinge our cloese, and everie tow or 3 butlengthe we should finde a man caled a mountaineard, lyinge in a bushe, havinge in his hande ether a bowe and arrowes, or eles a peece, the which weapeins as we supposed they did carrie to kill wyld foule; but we havinge strayed some thre myles into the wildernes, we found a square playne, the which was nothinge but a quagmyer, and in the mydeste thar of was tow myghtie greate buffelawes, beastes biger then our greate oxen. At the firste we saw nothinge but there heades, and they made a great noyse with their snufflinge, and, in the ende, went Runing awaye, which was a wonder to us, for had it bene an ox, or cowe, or horse of oures, theye would thare have bene drowned.
    Whylste we stood wondringe at this, we espied a great companye, to the number of aboute 40, of the afore sayde mountayneares, the which weare gathered together, and goinge aboute to catche us by inclosinge us aboute. This company beinge in that place, we knew not how to with stand, but only by flyinge away, and the woodes that weare betwyxte us and the seae weare so heie that we could not see the seae nor the maste of our shipe; but Runninge at a ventur throughe thicke and thine, thorns and bryeres, tearinge our close, at the laste we recovered a fayer playne, wheare we myghte se our shipe, and within a myle of the shore. Than weare we glade, and touke our ease, wheare we founde a fayre fountaine of verrie comfortable water, for we weare fastinge, and faynte with travell.
    After we had couled and Refreshed our selves, we Returned throughe the scatelsteade, plat, or foundationes of the towne or cittie of Scandaroune, so caled by the Turkes, but formerly caled Allicksandretta. There we myghte se greate peecis of wales wheare goodly housis and monestaris had bene, which in the same is now nothing but boges and pondes, wals of housis, and a castle, so sunke into the grounde with water aboute it that no bodie can go unto it. We did se thare, upon the wales of an oulde house, verrie strainge varmente Runing up and downe at great pace, som of them biger than a great toude, and of the same collore, but they had longe tayles lyk a Ratt. Som of them weare longer maede and less of boddie, and so many otheres of diveres fations. An other time my mate Harvie and I wente into the feeldes to washe our lininge, and, whylste it was a driinge, we went to gather some fruite, for thar be great store of good frute that is comon, cominge to a whyte Damson tre. As we were a gatheringe we espied a great Ader that was in the tre upon the bowes, at least 12 or 14 foute from the grounde. He was even Reddie to leape upon one of us. Assown as we turned our backe to run awaye, He leape oute of the tre, and Rune into a thickett of brieres. A greate number of suche smale matteres I will omitte.
  • Wee arrived in safety at Alexandretta alias Scanderone, which we found full of the carcases of houses, not one house in it. It having been a litle before sackt by the Turkish Pyrats. The unwholesomest place in the world to live in, by reason of the grosse fogges that both discend from the high mountaines, and ascend from the moorish [marshy] valleys. The hills about it are so high, that till ten of the clocke in the morning the Sunne seldome or never peepeth over them.

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