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Aḥmad Ibn Yaḥyā al-Balādhurī (Arabic: أحمد بن يحيى بن جابر البلاذري‎) was a 9th-century Muslim historian. One of the eminent Middle Eastern historians of his age, he spent most of his life in Baghdad and enjoyed great influence at the court of the caliph al-Mutawakkil. He traveled in Syria and Iraq, compiling information for his major works.


  • “…Their idol of Zur was of gold, and its eyes were two rubies. The zealous Musalmans cut off its hands and plucked out its eyes, and then remarked to the Marzaban how powerless was his idol to do either good or evil…”
  • “He then went to Kandahar in boats and conquered it. He destroyed the Budd there, and built in its place a mosque.”
  • The governors (who succeeded Qasim) continued to kill the enemy, taking whatever they could acquire…
    • Al Biladuri, quoted from Lal, K. S. (1994). Muslim slave system in medieval India. New Delhi: Aditya Prakashan. Chapter 12
  • [During Caliph Hasham bin Abdul Malik (r. 724–43), Sindh military chief Junaid bin Abdur Rahman engaged in a number of victorious campaigns. In his attack of Kiraj, he] ‘stormed the place, slaying, plundering, and making captives.’ ... [After the orthodox Abbasid dynasty was founded in 750, Caliph al-Mansur (r. 755–74) sent Hasham bin Amru for waging holy war against Hindu territories. He] ‘subdued Kashmir and took many prisoners and slaves…’ He then went to Kandahar in boats, and conquered it. He destroyed the budd there, and built in its place a mosque.
    • quoted in M.A. Khan , Islamic Jihad: A legacy of forced conversion, imperialism and slavery (2011), quoting quoting Elliot & Dawson, Vol. I
  • Muhammad and his Musulmans encountered Dahir mounted on his elephant, and surrounded by many of these animals, and his Takukaras [Thakurs] were near his person … Dahir dismounted and fought valiantly, but he was killed towards the evening, when the idolaters fled, and the Musulmans glutted themselves with massacre. According to Al Madaini, the slayer of Dahir was a man of the tribe of Kalab, who composed some verses upon the occasion.
    • Al-Baladhuri, “Futuh al-Buldan,” 122. quoted in Balakrishna, S. Invaders and infidels: From Sindh to Delhi : the 500- year journey of Islamic invasions. New Delhi : BloomsBury, 2021.

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