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Antimicrobial resistances is the evolutionary development by a species, or genus, of disease-causing microbe of the microbe's ability to survive the application of an antimicrobial agent against disease. The microbe might be a bacterium, virus, fungus, or protist. The resistance develops through Darwinian selection of changes from genetic mutation or gene transfer. The worst part of antimicrobial resistance is antibiotic resistance resulting from widespread use (or overuse) of antibiotics against bacteria.
- Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has developed as one of the major urgent threats to public health causing serious issues to successful prevention and treatment of persistent diseases. In spite of different actions taken in recent decades to tackle this issue, the trends of global AMR demonstrate no signs of slowing down. Misusing and overusing different antibacterial agents in the health care setting as well as in the agricultural industry are considered the major reasons behind the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. In addition, the spontaneous evolution, mutation of bacteria, and passing the resistant genes through horizontal gene transfer are significant contributors to antimicrobial resistance. Many studies have demonstrated the disastrous financial consequences of AMR including extremely high healthcare costs due to an increase in hospital admissions and drug usage.
- Porooshat Dadgostar, (2019). "Antimicrobial Resistance: Implications and Costs.". Infection and Drug Resistance 12: 3903–3910. DOI:10.2147/IDR.S234610.
- Let's avoid those unnecessary antibiotics. Let's not feed the antimicrobial-resistance demon.
- Daniel O. Griffin, (November 5, 2022)"TWiV 951: Clincal update with Dr. Daniel Griffin". YouTube, Vincent Racaniello. (quote at 36:12 of 50:09)
- The cost of antimicrobial resistance is immense, both economically as well as for human health and lives. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has released a new report (Stemming the superbug tide, 7 Nov 2018), which predicts that 2.4 million people in Europe, North America and Australia will die from infections with resistant microorganisms in the next 30 years and could cost up to US$3.5 billion per year. Southern European countries are predicted to have the highest mortality rate due to resistant infections among countries included in the study. Furthermore, many low and middle-income countries already have high resistance rates, which are predicted to increase disproportionately. For example, in Brazil, Indonesia and Russia 40–60% of infections are already caused by resistant microorganisms, and resistance is predicted to rise 4–7 times faster in these countries than in other OECD countries.
- Ursula Hofer, (2019). "The cost of antimicrobial resistance". Nature Reviews Microbiology 17 (1). DOI:10.1038/s41579-018-0125-x.
- The development of antibiotics is considered among the most important advances of modern science. Antibiotics have saved millions of lives. However, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) threatens this progress and presents significant risks to human health.
The increase in AMR has been driven by a diverse set of factors, including inappropriate antibiotic prescribing and sales, use of antibiotics outside of the health care sector, and genetic factors intrinsic to bacteria. The problem has been exacerbated by inadequate economic incentives for pharmaceutical development of new antimicrobial agents. A range of specific AMR concerns, including carbapenem- and colistin-resistant gram-negative organisms, pose a clinical challenge. Alternative approaches to address the AMR threat include new methods of antibacterial drug identification and strategies that neutralize virulence factors.
- Hilary D. Marston, Dennis M. Dixon, Jane M. Knisely, Tara N. Palmore, and Anthony S. Fauci, (2016). "Antimicrobial Resistance". JAMA 316 (11): 1193–1204. DOI:10.1001/jama.2016.11764.
Encyclopedic article on Antimicrobial resistance on Wikipedia