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Bayana is a historical town in Bharatpur district of Rajasthan in India. The fort known as Bijay Garh (Vijay Garh) is considered to be among the largest in India. The fort was held by Muhammad Ghori (1196 AD ) Sikandar Lodi(1492) and Humayun (1535 AD ). In 1526 AD the first Mughal emperor Babar described it as one of the most famous forts in India. Ain-I-Akbari mentions that in former times Bayana was the capital of a province of which Agra was a dependant village. Bayana was also known earlier by various names such as Santipura, Sripatha, and Vijaymandirgarh. According to Abul Fazal: “this town is the burial place of many illustrious men”. It can be adjudged that various important battles were fought here. Ain-e-Akbari mention that in former times Bayana was the capital of a province of which Agra was merely a dependent village.


  • Sikandar himself marched on Friday, the 6th Ramzan AH 906 (AD March, 1501), upon Dhulpur (Dholpur); but Raja Manikdeo, placing a garrison in the fort, retreated to Gwalior. This detachment however, being unable to defend it, and abandoning the fort by night, it fell into the hands of the Muhammadan army. Sikandar on entering the fort, fell down on his knees, and returned thanks to God, and celebrated his victory. The whole army was employed in plundering and the groves which spread shade for seven kos around Bayana were tom up from the roots'.....'In Ramzan of the year 910 (AD 1504), after the rising of Canopus, he raised the standard of war for the reduction of the fort of Mandrail; but the garrison capitulating, and delivering up the citadel, the Sultan ordered the temples and idols to be demolished, and mosques to be constructed. After leaving Mian Makan and Mujahid Khan to protect the fort, he himself moved out on a plundering expedition into the surrounding country, where he butchered many people, took many prisoners, and devoted to utter destruction all the groves and habitations; and after gratifying and honouring himself by this exhibition of holy zeal he returned to his capital Bayana.'...'
  • 'When Kutbu-d din beard of the Sultan's march from Ghazna, he was much rejoiced and advanced as far as Hansi to meet him' In the year AH 592 (AD 1196), they marched towards Thangar, and the centre of idolatry and perdition became the abode of glory and splendour.
  • In the reign of Muhammad Shah, the impudence of this community crossed all limits. And Surajmal, the cousin of Churaman, became its leader. He took to rebellion. Therefore, the city of Bayana which was an ancient seat of Islam, and where the Ulama and the Sufis had lived for seven hundred years, has been occupied by force and terror, and Muslims have been turned out of it with humiliation and hurt…
    • Shah Waliullah Dehlawi. Letter to Ahmad Shah Abdali, Ruler of Afghanistan. Translated from the Urdu version of K.A. Nizami, Shãh Walîullah Dehlvî ke Siyãsî Maktûbãt, Second Edition, Delhi, 1969, p.83 ff.
  • Perfection has been attained! Four centuries of years, together with the twenty-eighth (year), (or in figures) 400 (ana) 20 (ana) 8, having been accomplished; on the fifteenth lunar day of the dark fortnight of (the month) Phalguna;-on this (lunar day), (specified) as aforesaid: -
    (Line 3.)-On the ceremony of the pundarīka-sacrifice (having been performed), this sacrificial post has been caused to be set. up by the Varika, the illustrious Vishnuvardhana whose royalty and name are well established,-who is the excellent son of Yashovardhana; (and) the excellent son s son of Yashôrâta; (and) the excellent son of the son s son of Vyâghrarâta, - for the purpose of increasing (his) splendour, sacrifices, religion, welfare (in the other world), prosperity, fame, family, lineage, good fortune, and enjoyment.
    (L. 4.)-Let there be success! Let there be increase! Let there be tranquillity! Let there be the condition of (his) having a son who shall live! Let there be the attainment of desires that are wished for! May there be faith and wealth!
    • Bijayagadh Stone Pillar Inscription of Vishnuvardhana, locally known as Bhīm kī Lāţ, erected at Bayana in Bharatpur district
    • Source - Fleet, John F. Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum: Inscriptions of the Early Guptas. Vol. III. Calcutta: Government of India, Central Publications Branch, 1888, 254.

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