Bhoja (reigned c. 1010–1055 CE) was a monarch from the Paramara dynasty. His kingdom was centered around the Malwa region in central India, where his capital Dhara-nagara (modern Dhar) was located. Bhoja fought wars with nearly all his neighbours in attempts to extend his kingdom, with varying degrees of success. At its zenith, his kingdom extended from Chittor in the north to upper Konkan in the south, and from the Sabarmati River in the west to Vidisha in the east.
Bhoja is best known as a patron of arts, literature, and sciences. The establishment of the Bhoj Shala, a centre for Sanskrit studies, is attributed to him. He was a polymath, and several books covering a wide range of topics are attributed to him. He is also said to have constructed a large number of Shiva temples, although Bhojeshwar Temple in Bhojpur (a city founded by him) is the only surviving temple that can be ascribed to him with certainty.
- Homage to that Great God who has become spoilt through flattery
And fond of miracles, by whose will the ocean transforms
Into a landmass and the land becomes an ocean as well,
A speck of dust becomes a mountain and Meru becomes a clump of earth.
Straw becomes as hard as thunderbolt and thunderbolt becomes straw,
Fire becomes cold and snowflakes become fiery.
- Attributed to Bhoja by the poet Ballaladeva (or Ballalasena) in his 16th century classic, Bhoja-Prabandha. Quoted from Balakrishna, S., Lessons from Hindu History in 10 Episodes (2020)