Hades (New Testament)
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Hades (Greek: ᾍδης) is a term that occurs in the New Testament. It is often associated with the Old Testament concept of Sheol. The term does not occur in the Old Testament, although the Greek Septuagint translation of the Hebrew Bible usually translates Sheol as "Hades". In English translations of the Bible, Hades is conventionally translated as "hell".
- καὶ σύ, Καφαρναούμ, μὴ ἕως οὐρανοῦ ὑψωθήσῃ; ἕως ᾅδου καταβήσῃ· ὅτι εἰ ἐν Σοδόμοις ἐγενήθησαν αἱ δυνάμεις αἱ γενόμεναι ἐν σοί, ἔμεινεν ἂν μέχρι τῆς σήμερον.
- Matthew 11:23 (SBLGNT)
- And thou, Capernaum, which art exalted unto heaven, shalt be brought down to hell: for if the mighty works, which have been done in thee, had been done in Sodom, it would have remained until this day.
- And you, Capernaum, will you be lifted to the heavens? No, you will go down to Hades. For if the miracles that were performed in you had been performed in Sodom, it would have remained to this day.
- κἀγὼ δέ σοι λέγω ὅτι σὺ εἶ Πέτρος, καὶ ἐπὶ ταύτῃ τῇ πέτρᾳ οἰκοδομήσω μου τὴν ἐκκλησίαν, καὶ πύλαι ᾅδου οὐ κατισχύσουσιν αὐτῆς·
- Matthew 16:18 (SBLGNT)
- And I say also unto thee, That thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church; and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it.
- And I tell you that you are Peter, and on this rock I will build my church, and the gates of Hades will not overcome it.
- καὶ σύ, Καφαρναούμ, μὴ ἕως οὐρανοῦ ὑψωθήσῃ; ἕως τοῦ ᾅδου καταβιβασθήσῃ.
- Luke 10:15 (SBLGNT)
- And thou, Capernaum, which art exalted to heaven, shalt be thrust down to hell.
- And you, Capernaum, will you be lifted to the heavens? No, you will go down to Hades.
- καὶ ἐν τῷ ᾅδῃ ἐπάρας τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς αὐτοῦ, ὑπάρχων ἐν βασάνοις, ὁρᾷ Ἀβραὰμ ἀπὸ μακρόθεν καὶ Λάζαρον ἐν τοῖς κόλποις αὐτοῦ.
- Luke 16:23 (SBLGNT)
- And in hell he lift up his eyes, being in torments, and seeth Abraham afar off, and Lazarus in his bosom.
- In Hades, where he was in torment, he looked up and saw Abraham far away, with Lazarus by his side.
- Lazarus is carried off by the angels to "Abraham's bosom", a phrase that never occurs in early Jewish literature but probably simply means that Lazarus has been brought to paradise to recline at table beside the great patriarch of Israel. The rich man, on the other hand, is buried and ends up in Hades. It is not a happy place. … Moreover, the respective fates of the two appear to be permanent. There is a vast chasm separating them. Neither will ever leave the place he is in.
- Bart D. Ehrman: Heaven and Hell: A History of the Afterlife. Simon & Schuster, 2020.