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Humayun, detailed of miniature of the Baburname.

Nasir ud-din Muhammad Humayun, (Persian: نصیر الدین محمد همایون; full title: Nasir ud-din Muhammad Humayun Padshah Ghazi, Zillullah) (6 March 1508 – 27 January 1556) was the second Mughal Emperor who ruled present day Afghanistan, Pakistan, and parts of northern India from 1530–1540 and again from 1555–1556. Like his father, Babur was driven out of his kingdom early, but with Safavid assistance, he eventually regained an even larger one. On the eve of his death in 1556, the Mughal Empire spanned almost one million square kilometers.


  • Indeed Suleiman the Magnificent, deserves to be called the only Padshah on Earth.
    • as quoted in Pan-Islamism: Indian Muslims, the Ottomans and Britain, 1877-1924 (1997) by Azmi Ozcan During a discussion with the Ottoman Admiral Syedi Ali Reis, the Mughal Emperor Humayun.
  • He holds aloft the banner of Islam and knocks down the infamous idols. He does away with people of infidelity and hostility (of Islam).
    • Khwand Amir: Qanun-i Humayuni, M. Hidayat Hosain ed., Calcutta 1940. Cited in Harsh Narain, The Ayodhya Temple Mosque Dispute: Focus on Muslim Sources, p. 66-67

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