Influenza vaccine

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Influenza vaccines, also known as flu jabs or flu shots, are vaccines that protect against infection by influenza viruses.

Quotes[edit]

Recent pandemics illustrate another problem that must be faced with an impending pandemic. The time between recognition of the emergence of a new pandemic virus and the occurrence of the first wave may be short. The lead time for the production and distribution of the currently licensed influenza vaccine, trivalent influenza vaccine is 6 months. It is highly unlikely that sufficient vaccine can be produced, distributed and administered to the entire population before the first wave of the pandemic. In 1918 and 1957, the first wave of the pandemic peaked in late October allowing less time than usually occurs before the onset of interpandemic outbreaks, in the usual sequence of vaccine production starting in January. ~ Glezen W Paul
The global pandemic influenza vaccine production capacity in 2015 was estimated to be 6.4 billion doses—a record level, but not enough to provide the potential need for 2 doses for even half the world’s population. The current timeline for vaccine production also limits the usefulness of pandemic vaccine, as reflected in 2009, when the bulk of pandemic vaccine was not available until after the peak of the pandemic. However, increased use of new vaccine formulations that do not rely on growing viruses in eggs, such as cell-based vaccine and recombinant protein vaccine, will reduce the time required for vaccine manufacturing. In addition, further expansion of seasonal influenza vaccine manufacturing capacity worldwide, and continued increases in use of vaccine, will facilitate pandemic vaccine production and global access to pandemic vaccines. ~ Jester, B; Uyeki, T; Jernigan, D.
  • The use of licensed inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine is increasing, but even if all high risk persons currently given priority for this vaccine should be vaccinated each year, influenza epidemics would continue to occur.
  • Recent pandemics illustrate another problem that must be faced with an impending pandemic. The time between recognition of the emergence of a new pandemic virus and the occurrence of the first wave may be short. The lead time for the production and distribution of the currently licensed influenza vaccine, trivalent influenza vaccine is 6 months. It is highly unlikely that sufficient vaccine can be produced, distributed and administered to the entire population before the first wave of the pandemic. In 1918 and 1957, the first wave of the pandemic peaked in late October allowing less time than usually occurs before the onset of interpandemic outbreaks, in the usual sequence of vaccine production starting in January.
  • In the last 100 years, numerous vaccines have become available for influenza prevention. In the United States, national vaccine policy recommends influenza vaccination annually for everyone older than age 6 months. There are multiple types of vaccine that use different inactivated, live-attenuated, and egg-free formulations. Recent efforts through WHO’s Global Action Plan for Influenza Vaccines and the Pandemic Influenza Preparedness framework supported efforts to increase vaccine manufacturing and laboratory capacity for identifying viruses for use in vaccines. The global pandemic influenza vaccine production capacity in 2015 was estimated to be 6.4 billion doses—a record level, but not enough to provide the potential need for 2 doses for even half the world’s population. The current timeline for vaccine production also limits the usefulness of pandemic vaccine, as reflected in 2009, when the bulk of pandemic vaccine was not available until after the peak of the pandemic. However, increased use of new vaccine formulations that do not rely on growing viruses in eggs, such as cell-based vaccine and recombinant protein vaccine, will reduce the time required for vaccine manufacturing. In addition, further expansion of seasonal influenza vaccine manufacturing capacity worldwide, and continued increases in use of vaccine, will facilitate pandemic vaccine production and global access to pandemic vaccines.
  • Many challenges remain to improving influenza vaccines. Current seasonal influenza vaccines, at best, are only moderately effective in preventing illness and often have low effectiveness. Greater monitoring of vaccine effectiveness is needed to better inform incremental improvements in current influenza vaccines. A more broadly protective and longer-lasting (i.e., “universal”) vaccine could decrease the current need for frequent formulation change and improve prevention of influenza worldwide, especially in low-resource and middle-income countries. Rapid development of vaccine candidates, accelerated clinical trials, and reducing the time required to formulate and distribute pandemic vaccine can reduce pandemic morbidity and deaths. Therefore, reducing the current pandemic influenza vaccine availability timeframe from 20 to 12 weeks is a key priority in the 2017 Update of the Health and Human Services Pandemic Influenza Plan.
  • Despite our modern arsenal of antibiotics, of viral and bacterial vaccines, of antiviral drugs, advanced intensive care treatment, and nonpharmaceutical interventions, we are still doing a poor job of preventing influenza deaths. The most important lesson from the devastation of the 1918 pandemic may be the need to produce better antiviral drugs and prophylactic and therapeutic monoclonal antibody therapies. We need effective vaccines against multiple bacterial pneumopathogens, especially S. aureus and S. pyogenes, and effective broadly protective “universal” influenza vaccines to prevent, or at least mitigate the impact of, future pandemics and to prevent deaths from seasonal influenza in the periods in between pandemics. Vaccines that could confer long-term broad immune responses against all influenza viruses, and especially against viruses with the most pathogenic HAs found in nature, would greatly enhance public health preparedness.

External links[edit]

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