Jerome Isaac Friedman

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Jerome Isaac Friedman (born March 28, 1930) is an American physicist, 1990 Physics Nobel Prize laureate for his work showing that protons had an internal structure, later known to be quarks.


  • Innovation is the key to the future, but basic research is the key to future innovation.
  • Creativity is the basis of all innovation, and although it is doubtful that it can be taught, creativity should be nurtured in those who have it.
  • Young people should be given good support and freedom in their research. They are the greatest source of scientific creativity because they are not as committed to existing scientific orthodoxy, and they have the energy and enthusiasm to push new ideas.
  • We should willingly take risks in supporting new projects. The tendency is to play it safe when funding is low, but we need to remember that the greatest risks have the greatest payoffs.
  • Excessive bureaucracy is distracting, time-consuming, and destructive to creativity.
  • It is clear to me that under the right conditions, future technologies will be created that we cannot even imagine.
    • Will Innovation Flourish in the Future? - Opinion by Jerome Friedman, American Institute of Physics, adapted from his keynote address at a conference titled "Infrastructure for e-Business, e-Education, e-Science, and e-Medicine" that was held at the Scuola Superiore G. Reiss Romoli in L'Aquila, Italy, July 29-August 4, 2002.

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