Pope Urban VIII
Pope Urban VIII (baptised 5 April 1568; – 29 July 1644), born Maffeo Barberini, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 6 August 1623 to his death in 1644. As pope, he expanded the papal territory by force of arms and advantageous politicking, and was also a prominent patron of the arts and a reformer of Church missions.
However, the massive debts incurred during his pontificate greatly weakened his successors, who were unable to maintain the papacy's longstanding political and military influence in Europe. He was also an opponent of Copernicanism and involved in the Galileo affair.