Jainism

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All breathing, existing, living, sentient creatures should not be slain, nor treated with violence, nor abused, nor tormented, nor driven away. ~ Mahavira.
Kevalajnana attained by Mahavira
Digambar (unclothed) Jain Muni.
Śvētāmbara (White clothed) Jain Munis.

Jainism /ˈdʒeɪnɪz(ə)m/, traditionally known as Jaina dharma, is an Indian religion which prescribes paths of Ahiṃsā, or non-violence towards all living beings, and which emphasizes a spiritual interdependence of all forms of life. Practitioners believe that non-violence and self-control are the means by which all obtain liberation. Another central and fundamental doctrine is anēkāntavāda, a non-exclusivity which reveres principles of pluralism and multiplicity of viewpoints, emphasizing the truth that reality is perceived differently from diverse points of view, and that no single point of view is the complete truth.

Alphabetized by author or source:
A · B · C · D · E · F · G · H · I · J · K · L · M · N · O · P · Q · R · S · T · U · V · W · X · Y · Z · Anon · External links

A[edit]

Non-violence and kindness to living beings is kindness to oneself. ~ Mahavira
Souls render service to one another.
  • The Arhats and Bhagavats of the past, present, and future, all say thus, speak thus, declare thus, explain thus:
    All breathing, existing, living, sentient creatures should not be slain, nor treated with violence, nor abused, nor tormented, nor driven away.
    This is the pure, unchangeable, eternal law, which the clever ones, who understand the world, have declared: among the zealous and the not zealous, among the faithful and the not faithful, among the not cruel and the cruel, among those who have worldly weakness and those who have not, among those who like social bonds and those who do not: "that is the truth, that is so, that is proclaimed in this (creed)”.
    • Acaranga Sutra (1:4:1) quoted in in “Sourcebook of the World's Religions: An Interfaith Guide to Religion and ...", p. 80

B[edit]

  • The essential metaphysical ideas of Jainism are nine cardinal principles. The universe is divided into that which is alive and conscious (jiva) and matter which is not (ajiva). Jivas (souls) are either caught by karma (action) in the world of reincarnation (samsara) or liberated (mukta) and perfected (siddha). Though their number is infinite, jivas are individuals and each potentially infinite in awareness, power, and bliss. Matter (ajiva) is made up of eternal atoms in time and space which can be moved and stopped.
    • Sandorson Beck, quoting Mahavira in "Ethics of Civilization Volume 2: INDIA & SOUTHEAST ASIA to 1800."

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F[edit]

  • ...the true nature of this great religion can be understood only if we emphasize not so much the broad divisions into Digambar and Shvetambar denominations but direct our probe into the importance and rationale of small sub-divisions. There are two major factors behind the unity of Jainism despite these divisions; one, attempts by all to unravel the original philosophy and practice of the devotees of Jin, and, two, the overarching philosophy credo of the many – pointed nature of truth (anekanta and syadavad) in Jainism.

G[edit]

  • Gandhi’s adherence to the philosophy of non-violence, non-possession, community welfare throughout his life can directly be attributed to the basic teachings of Jainism.
    • B. N. Ghosh, in "Gandhian Political Economy: Principles, Practice and Policy", p. 34

H[edit]

  • A rise of Jain fundamentalism would endanger no one. In fact, the uncontrollable spread of Jainism throughout the world would improve our situation immensely. We would loose more of our crops to pests, perhaps (observant Jains generally will not kill anything, including insects), but we would not find ourselves surrounded by suicidal terrorists or by a civilization that widely condones their actions.
    • Sam Harris, in The End of Faith : Religion, Terror, and the Future of Reason (2005)
  • Mahavira, the Jain patriarch, surpassed the morality of the Bible with a single sentence: "Do not injure, abuse, oppress, enslave, insult, torment, torture, or kill any creature or living being." Imagine how different our world might be if the Bible contained this as its central precept.
    • Sam Harris, in Letter to a Christian Nation (2006), p. 23
  • Jainism actually is a religion of peace. The core principle of Jainism is non-violence. Gandhi got his non-violence from the Jains. The crazier you get as a Jain, the less we have to worry about you. Jain extremists are paralysed by their pacifism. Jain extremists can't take their eyes off the ground when they walk lest they step on an ant... Needless to say they are vegetarian.
    • Sam Harris, Lecture at the First Congregational Church of Berkeley (November 10, 2010)
  • When I was a schoolboy in England, the old bound volumes of Kipling in the library had gilt swastikas embossed on their covers. The symbol's 'hooks' were left-handed, as opposed to the right-handed ones of the Nazi hakenkreuz, but for a boy growing up after 1945 the shock of encountering the emblem at all was a memorable one. I later learned that in the mid-1930s Kipling had caused this 'signature' to be removed from all his future editions. Having initially sympathized with some of the early European fascist movements, he wanted to express his repudiation of Hitlerism (or 'the Hun,' as he would perhaps have preferred to say), and wanted no part in tainting the ancient Indian rune by association. In its origin it is a Hindu and Jainas symbol for light, and well worth rescuing.

I[edit]

J[edit]

  • The interest of Jainism to the students of religion consists in the fact that it goes back to a very early period and to Primitive currents of religious and metaphysical speculations, which gave rise to the oldest philosophies Sankhya, Yoga and to Buddhism.
    • Dr. H. Jacobi, in "Faith & Philosophy of Jainism", p. 17
  • The central tenet of Jainism is Ahimsa (non-violence) and Gandhi’s philosophy rested on it.
    • Arun Kumar Jain, in "Faith & Philosophy of Jainism", p. 287
  • Flesh can not be procured without causing destruction of life; one who uses flesh, therefore, commits himsa (injury) unavoidable.
    • Jainism, in "Humanimal", p. 161
  • Jainism is not an offshoot of Vedic Brahmanism. It belonged to the masses who were basically agriculturist and valued bulls and cows.
    • In Faith & Philosophy of Jainism", p. 18
  • Jainism is basically a religious faith of the Thirthankaras. Jainism has come from the word Jin, which means the conquest of one’s own self in bondage,
    • In Faith & Philosophy of Jainism", p. 18
  • Jainism has a distinct concept of underlying Thirthankara worship. The physical form is not worshipped, but their Gunas; virtues , qualities are praised. Thirthankaras remain role-models, and sects such as the Sthanakavasi stringently reject statue worship.
    • In Faith & Philosophy of Jainism", p. 218

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M[edit]

Our world is one of incompleteness. Where there is incompleteness, there is relativity. Both karma and akarma are relative. No work is completed without akarma. ~ Mahāprajña
  • Truth is beyond space and time. One who does not yearn for truth, will be trapped within space and time and become dogged. That man alone can remain free from mulish tendencies, who has the capacity to think across time: in the past, present and the future.
  • To search for truth should be the main goal in one's life. This is a very difficult task. Let us begin by asking what is truth? What is untruth? To make this decision itself is difficult. Once the decision has been made, it is even more difficult to understand the limitations possible even in truth: elements of doubt and illusion. The Ultimate Truth is still far away, even if we are anywhere near relative truth, it should be deemed a great achievement.
  • The balance between karma and akarma gives holistic vision. Lots of discussions regarding Karmayoga. No work can be completed without karma. That is the truth. Everybody accepts this truth. Our world is one of incompleteness. Where there is incompleteness, there is relativity. Both karma and akarma are relative. No work is completed without akarma.
  • I am all-knowing and all-seeing,
    and possessed of an infinite knowledge.
    Whether I am walking or standing still,
    whether I sleep or remain awake,
    the supreme knowledge and intuition,
    are present with me---constantly and continuously.
    There are, O Nirgranthas, some sinful acts,
    you have done in the past,
    which you must now wear out,
    by this acute form of austerity.
    Now that here you will be living restrained,
    in regard to your acts, speech and thought,
    it will work as the nondoing of karma for future.
    Thus, by the exhaustion of the force of past deeds,
    through penance and the non-accumulation of new acts,(you are assured) of the stoppage of the future course,
    of rebirth from such stoppage,
    of the destruction of the effect of karma, from that, of the destruction of pain,
    from that, of the destruction of mental feelings,
    and from that, of the complete wearing out of all kinds of pain.
    • Mahavira quoted in "Ethics of Civilization Volume 2: INDIA & SOUTHEAST ASIA to 1800."
  • All breathing, existing, living, sentient creatures should not be slain, nor treated with violence, nor abused, nor tormented, nor driven away.
    • Mahavira, in Ācharanga Sutra, Book 1, lecture 4, lesson 1, as translated by H. Jacobi, quoted in The Boundless Circle : Caring for Creatures and Creation (1996) by Michael W. Fox, p. 262
  • Desistance from sin makes one entirely happy.
    • Mahavira, as quoted in Religion and culture of the Jains (1975) by Jyotiprasāda Jaina, p. 187
  • Non-violence and kindness to living beings is kindness to oneself. For thereby one's own self is saved from various kinds of sins and resultant sufferings and is able to secure his own welfare.
    • Mahavira, as quoted in Religion and culture of the Jains (1975) by Jyotiprasāda Jaina, p. 187
  • Jainism: In happiness and suffering, in joy and grief, we should regard all creatures as we regard our own self.
    • Mahavira in "Sourcebook of the World's Religions: An Interfaith Guide to Religion and ...", p. 173

N[edit]

Namokar mantra[edit]

Namokar Mantra at Jain Religion.in
Devanagari Roman alphabet Translation

णमो अरिहंताणं
णमो सिद्धाणं
णमो आयरियाणं
णमो उवज्झायाणं
णमो लोए सव्व साहूणं
एसोपंचणमोक्कारो, सव्वपावप्पणासणो
मंगला णं च सव्वेसिं, पडमम हवई मंगलं

Namo Arihantanam:
Namo Siddhanam
Namo Ayariyanam:
Namo Uvajjayanam:
Namo Loe Savva Sahunam:
Eso Panch Namukkaro:Savva Pava Panasano:

I bow to the enlightened beings
I bow to the liberated souls
I bow to religious leaders
I bow to religious teachers
I bow to all ascetics of the world
.

Color Science of Namokar Mantra[edit]

Acharya Shri Shushil Muni at Jainism Literature Center, Harvard University
  • Namo Arihantanam - White Color: Arihant is a perfect human being. White color represents Arihant. The white color is the mother of all colors; it is a blending of all colors. It represents pure knowledge.
  • Siddhanam - Red Color: Siddha is a pure consciousness or a soul without any Karma attached to it. Both Arihant and Siddha are known as Gods in Jainism. Red color represents Siddha.
  • Namo Airiyanam - Yellow and Orange Color: Acharya is a head of the Jain congregation. It symbolizes the organizational power,Yellow or orange color represents Acharya. Both Yellow and Orange show wisdom, power to accomplish the goal, and discipline or strong will power in the life.
  • Namo Uvajjhayanam - Green and Blue Color: Upadhyay is a teacher, which shows how to awaken powers and maintain balance of body, mind, and soul. Green or Blue color represents Upadhyay.
  • Namo Loe Savva Sahunam - Black Color: Sadhu (monk) is a spiritual practitioner. The practitioner must be protected from worldly attachments and must destroy negativity. Black color represents monk. Black is the absence of all color. It is receptive, consumes negativity, and gives the strength to fight negativity.

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Five Great Vows (Maha Vrata) by a Sadhu

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R[edit]

Jain Cosmic Time Cycle:Like Hinduism, Jain cosmology believes in a series of Kalpas or cycles of existence which are divided into twelve eras, a term similar to manvantaras of Hinduism. According to Jain tradition, Jainism is revealed anew in every kalpa through twenty-four Thirthankaras...

Roshen Dalal Hinduism: An Alphabetical Guide

  • Jainism is the religion of the Jains, those who rever the Jinas or realized souls.
    • p. 173
  • In historical times Vardhamana Mahavira who according to tradition was born in 599BCE, explained this religion but he was not the first to reveal its principles which are said to have always existed. Though a distinct religion, it has some similarities with Hinduism.
    • p. 173
  • Jainism has a complex classification of Jnana or knowledge, and the means of understanding reality.
    • p. 174
  • Like Hinduism, Jain cosmology believes in a series of Kalpas or cycles of existence which are divided into twelve eras, a term similar to manvantaras of Hinduism. According to Jain tradition, Jainism is revealed anew in every kalpa through twenty-four Thirthankaras...
    • p. 174
  • Jainism was patronized by a number of kings and dynasties, which lead to its influence on common man.
    • p. 174
  • Jain myths and legends incorporate the names of Hindu rishis and deities, and Jainism has its own version of Ramayana and Mahabharata.
    • p. 174
  • Tantrism does not seem to have been prominent in Jainism.
    • p. 174
Mythical and real mountains are both considered sacred, particularly in Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and tribal religions.
  • Mythical and real mountains are both considered sacred, particularly in Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and tribal religions.
    • p. 259
  • The term moksha is also used in Buddhism and Jainism, and is similar in concept of nirvana in Buddhism. Ancient materialistic schools denied the concept of moksha, while the twentieth century philosopher Sri Aurobindo believed that the goal of life was not moksha, but evolution to a higher state.
  • Buddhism and Jainism were at least partly a reaction against the sacrifices and rituals of the Vedas.
    • p. 63

S[edit]

  • Māhavīra proclaimed a profound truth for all times to come when he said: "One who neglects or disregards the existence of earth, air, fire, water and vegetation disregards his own existence which is entwined with them." Jain cosmology recognizes the fundamental natural phenomenon of symbiosis or mutual dependence, which forms the basis of the modern day science of ecology. It is relevant to recall that the term "ecology" was coined in the latter half of the nineteenth century from the Greek word oikos, meaning "home", a place to which one returns. Ecology is the branch of biology which deals with the relations of organisms to their surroundings and to other organisms. The ancient Jain scriptural aphorism Parasparopagraho Jīvānām (All life is bound together by mutual support and interdependence) is refreshingly contemporary in its premise and perspective. It defines the scope of modern ecology while extending it further to a more spacious "home". It means that all aspects of nature belong together and are bound in a physical as well as a metaphysical relationship. Life is viewed as a gift of togetherness, accommodation and assistance in a universe teeming with interdependent constituents.
    • Laxmi Mall Singhvi, in "Jain Declaration of Nature" in Jainism and Ecology : Nonviolence in the Web of Life (2006) by Christopher Key Chapple, p. 217
  • All breathing, existing, living, snteint creatures should not be slain nr treated with violence, nor abused, nor tormented, nor driven away. This the pure unchangeable law.
    • Sutrakritanga, in Jainism religious text quoted in "Humanimal", p. 144
  • All beings hate pains; therefore one should not kill them. This is the quintessence of wisdom; not to kill anything.
    • Sutrakritanga, in Jainism religious text,quoted in "Humanimal", p. 159

Immortal Song

  • May the sacred stream of amity flow forever in my heart.
    May the universe prosper - such is my cherished desire.
    May my heart sing with ecstasy at the sight of the virtuous.
    And may my life be an offering at their feet.
    May my heart bleed at the sight of the wretched, the irreligious, and my tears of compassion flow from my eyes.
    May I always be there to show the path to the pathless wanderers of life.
    Yet if they should not hearken to me, may I bide in patience.
    May the spirit of goodwill enter into all our hearts,
    May we all sing in chorus the immortal song of human concord
    • Immortal Song, quoted in “Sourcebook of the World's Religions: An Interfaith Guide to Religion and ...”, p. 79

T[edit]

Teachings of Jainism in "Ethics of Civilization Volume 2: INDIA & SOUTHEAST ASIA to 1800"[edit]

A Manuscript of Upadesha mala or teachings of Jainism
  • Having mastered the teachings and got rid of carelessness,
    one should live on allowed food,
    and treat all beings as one oneself would be treated;
    one should not expose oneself to guilt
    by one's desire for life;
    a monk who performs austerities should not keep any store
  • Subdue yourself, for the self is difficult to subdue;
    if your self is subdued,
    you will be happy in this world and the next.
    Better it is that I should subdue myself
    by self-control and penance,
    than be subdued by others
    with fetters and corporal punishment
  • The binding of animals, all the Vedas, and sacrifices,
    being causes of sin, cannot save the sinner;
    for one's works are very powerful.
    One does not become a Shramana by the tonsure,
    nor a Brahmin by the sacred syllable aum,
    nor a Muni by living in the woods,
    nor a Tapasa by wearing kusha-grass and bark.
    One becomes a Shramana by equanimity,
    a Brahmin by chastity, a Muni by knowledge,
    and a Tapasa by penance.
    By one's actions one becomes a Brahmin
    or a Kshatriya or a Vaisya or a Sudra.

U[edit]

  • परस्परोपग्रहो जीवानाम्

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Anonymous[edit]

External links[edit]

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