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Abu Osman Minhajuddin bin Sirajuddin, also known as Qazi Minhaj-i-Siraj Juzjani (1193 — 1260) was a 13th-century persian historian born in the Ghurid capital city of Firuzkuh, which was located in Ghor Province. Minhaj-i-Siraj was the principal historian for the Mamluk Sultanate of Delhi in northern India, and wrote of the Ghurid dynasty. He also wrote the Tabaqat-i Nasiri for Sultan Nasiruddin Mahmud Shah of Delhi.


  • The greater number of inhabitants of that place were Brahmans, and the whole of those Brahmans had their heads shaven, and they were all slain. There were a great number of books there; and when all these books came under the observation of the Musalmans, they summoned a number of Hindus that they might give them information respecting the import of those books; but the whole of the Hindus had been killed. On being acquainted (with the contents of the books), it was found that the whole of that fortress and city was a college, and in the Hindu tongue, they call a college, Bihar [vihara].
    • Maulana Minhaj-ud-din, Tabakat-i-Nasiri, H.G Raverty [trans.], Volume I, Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1881, reprinted by Oriental Books Reprint Corporation, Delhi, 1970, pp. 548–53. quoted in Shourie, Arun (2014). Eminent historians: Their technology, their line, their fraud. Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India : HarperCollins Publishers.
    • Also in Elliot and Dowson, The History of India, Vol.II, p.306, with different translation: "most of inhabitants were Brahmins with shaven heads. They were put to death. Large number of books were found there, and, when the Muhammadans saw them, they called for some persons to explain their contents, but all the men had been killed. It was discovered that the whole fort and city was a place of study. In the Hindi language the word Behar (vihar) means a college".
    • About Bakhtiyar Khilji conquests in Bihar
  • Turks of pure lineage and Tajiks of noble birth could not tolerate … the tribes of Hind to rule over them.
    • Minhaj Jurjani, quoted from K.S. Lal, Indian Muslims, who are they (2012)
  • [Minhaj Siraj describes:] “The Maliks and servants of the Sultan’s Court were all Turks of pure lineage” (Turkan-i-pak) writes he, and Taziks of noble birth (Tazikan-i-guzida was). “Imad-ud-Din Rayhan (who) was castrated and mutilated, and of the tribe of Hind, was ruling over the heads of lords of high descent, and the whole of them were loathing that state, and were unable to suffer any longer that degradation.”...
    • Minhaj Siraj quoted from Lal, K. S. (1994). Muslim slave system in medieval India. New Delhi: Aditya Prakashan. Chapter 7
  • 'When Sultan Mahmud ascended the throne of sovereignty, his illustrious deeds became manifest unto all mankind within the pale of Islam when he converted so many thousands of idol temples into masjids. He led an army to Nahrwalah of Gujarat, and brought away Manat, the idol, from Somnath, and had it broken into four parts, one of which was cast before the entrance of the great Masjid at Ghaznin, the second before the gateway of the Sultan's palace, and the third and fourth were sent to Makkah and Madinah respectively.
    • Maulana Minhaj-us-Siraj: Tabqat-i-Nasiri, translated into English by Major H.G. Reverty, New Delhi Reprint, 1970, Vol. I, pp. 81-82.
  • [Among the different coins struck in Mahmud's reign one bore the following inscription:] "The right hand of the empire, Mahmud Sultan, son of Nasir-ud-Din Subuk-Tigin, Breaker of Idols."
    • Maulana Minhaj-us-Siraj: Tabqat-i-Nasiri, translated into English by Major H.G. Reverty, New Delhi Reprint, 1970, Vol. I,p. 88, footnote 2.
  • Sultan Mahmud’s “court was guarded by four thousand Turkish good looking and beardless (ghulam turk washaq) slave-youths, who, on days of public audience, were stationed on the right and left of throne,- two thousand of them with caps ornamented with four feathers, bearing golden maces, on the right hand, and the other two thousand, with caps adorned with two feathers, bearing silver maces, on the left… As these youths attained into man’s estate and their beards began to grow, they were attached to a separate corps, and placed occasionally under the command of rulers of provinces.”
    • Minhaj, quoted in Lal, K. S. (1992). The legacy of Muslim rule in India. New Delhi: Aditya Prakashan. and Lal, K. S. (1994). Muslim slave system in medieval India. New Delhi: Aditya Prakashan.
  • [Minhaj Siraj writes that] “Ulugh Khan Balban’s taking of captives, and his capture of the dependents of the great Ranas cannot be recounted”. ... “All the infidels’ wives, sons and dependents… and children… fell into the hands of the victors.”
    • Minhaj; in Elliot and Dowson, II, As quoted from Lal, K. S. (1994). Muslim slave system in medieval India. New Delhi: Aditya Prakashan. Chapter 5 and in Lal, K. S. (1999). Theory and practice of Muslim state in India. New Delhi: Aditya Prakashan. Chapter 4 (About Ulug Khan Balban and his war in Avadh against Trailokyavarman of the Chandela dynasty)
  • Ulugh Khan Balban attacked Karra in 1248; there, records Siraj, his ‘taking of captives and his capture of the dependents of the great Ranas (Hindu princes) cannot be counted.’ In attacking the Rana Dalaki wa Malaki, ‘He took prisoners the wives, sons, and dependents of that accursed one, and secured great booty.’dccx In 1252, Balban attacked and defeated the great Rana, Jahir Deo, of Malwa; ‘many captives fell into the hands of the victors,’ records Siraj.
    • quoted in M.A. Khan , Islamic Jihad: A legacy of forced conversion, imperialism and slavery (2011), quoting quoting Elliot & Dawson, Vol. II and Ferishtah Vol I. [1]
  • Subuktigin greatly rejoiced, and said, I name the child Mahmud. On the same night that he was born, an idol temple in India, in the vicinity of Parshawar, on the banks of the Sind, fell down.
    • in Elliot Dowson II, [2]
  • [L]ike fish out of water, and sick men without slumber, from night till morn, and from morn till night, they offered up their prayers to the Creator, supplicating him to let the dawn of Ulugh Khan’s prosperity break forth in splendour, and dispel with its brilliant light the gloom occasioned by his rival Rihan. The Almighty graciously gave ear to the prayers…. The nobles and servants of the State were all Turks of pure origin and Taziks of good stock, but ’Imddu-d din was an eunuch and impotent; he, moreover, belonged to one of the tribes of Hindustan. Notwithstanding all this he exercised authority over the heads of all these chiefs [emphasis added]. They were disgusted with this state of affairs and could no longer endure it. They suffered so much from the hands of the bullies who were retained by ’Imadu-d din, that for six months they could not leave their houses, nor could they even go to prayers on Fridays. How was it possible for Turks and Maliks, accustomed to power, rule, and warfare, to remain quiet under such ignominy?
    • Minhaju-s Siraj, “Tabaqat-i-Nasiri,”, 371. in Sandeep Balakrishna - Invaders and Infidels_ From Sindh to Delhi_ The 500-Year Journey of Islamic Invasions. Bloomsbury India (2020)


  • That heart which, through separation, thou madest sad;
    From every joy that was, which thou madest bare of;
    From thy disposition I am aware that, suddenly and unexpectedly,
    The rumour may arise that thou hast broken it.
    • Tabaqat-i Nasiri, p. 20
  • The lip, in the ruby lips of heart-ravishes delighting,
    And to ruffle the dishevelled tresses essaying,
    To-day is delightful, but to-morrow it is not—
    To make one's self like as straw, fuel for the fire.
    • Tabaqat-i Nasiri, p. 21

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