Andrzej Tadeusz Bonawentura Kościuszko (4 February 1746 – 15 October 1817) was a Polish patriot and soldier who served in Washington's army during the American Revolution; he was also known as Thaddeus Kosciuszko.
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I beg Mr Jefferson that in case I should die without will or testament he should bye out of my money so many Negroes and free them, that the restart Sum should be Sufficient to give them education and provide for their maintenance. That is to say each should know before, the duty of a Citizen in the free Government, that he must defend his Country against foreign as well internal Enemies who would wish to change the Constitution for the worst to enslave them by degree afterwards, to have good and human heart sensible for the sufferings of others, each must be married and have 100 acres of land, with instruments, Cattle for tillage and know how to manage and Govern it as well to know how to behave to neighbours, always with kindness and ready to help them-to themselves frugal, to their Children give good education I mean as to the heart and the duty to the Country, in gratitude to me to make themselves happy as possible. T. Kosciuszko
Version of 5 May 1798
- I Thaddeus Kosciuszko being just in my departure from America do hereby declare and direct that should I make no other testamentary disposition of my property in the United States I hereby authorise my friend Thomas Jefferson to employ the whole thereof in purchasing Negroes from among his own or any others and giving them liberty in my name, in giving them an education in trades or otherwise and in having them instructed for their new condition in the duties of morality which may make them good neighbours, good fathers or mothers, husbands or wives and in their duties as citizens teaching them to be defenders of their liberty and Country and of the good order of society and in whatsoever may make them happy and useful and I make the said Thomas Jefferson my executor of this.
- T. Kosciuszko, 5th day of May 1798. (See The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 30, Princeton 2004, p. 332-333). Note: Thomas Jefferson never did carry out this request.
Letter to Adam Czartoryski (1814)
- (...) therefore all sovereign bodies within the nation will act against deeds of the government accompanied by secret revolts and conspiracies which the history is unfortunately full of; one cannot expect that its actions will change on their own because it remains within its vital interest to fascinate people with lies, fear of hell, bizarre dogmas and abstract or incomprehensible theological ideas (...)" (Source: „Kwartalnik Historyczny”, R. LXXII, nr 4, 1965)
- And Freedom shrieked - as Kosciuszko fell!
- Thaddeus Kosciuszko at UShistory.org
- Tadeusz Kościuszko at Polishworld.com
- Thaddeus Kosciuszko National Memorial
- Kościuszko Foundation