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Aleppo (Arabic: ﺣَﻠَﺐ) is a city in Syria, which serves as the capital of the Aleppo Governorate, the most populous governorate of Syria. With an estimated population of 2,098,000 residents as of 2021, it was Syria's largest city until its population was surpassed by Damascus, the largest in Syria's northern governorates and also one of the largest cities in the Levant region.


  • With every treacherous shell that had fallen, the enemies’ hopes would grow that Aleppo would become another Aleppo, one that never existed throughout history, an Aleppo that does not constitute with its twin Damascus the wings by which the homeland soars; rather an Aleppo whose people would stand with traitors in front of masters, kneeling and prostrating themselves before them, begging for a few dollars and much disgrace. That was in their dreams; but in our real world, with every shell that fell, fear fell and the will to challenge grew. With every martyr, nationalist spirit grew and faith in the homeland became stronger. In our real world, it remained the real Aleppo, the Aleppo of history, nobility, and authenticity. And because it is so, its people did not settle for steadfastness just in the sense of bearing of pain and suffering and acceptance of the status quo; but rather in the sense of work and production that persisted throughout the years of the siege despite the conditions that contradict any economic sense.
  • And say besides that in Aleppo once,
    Where a malignant and a turbaned Turk
    Beat a Venetian and traduced the state,
    I took by th’throat the circumcisèd dog
    And smote him—thus.

Totall Discourse

William Lithgow, The Totall Discourse Of the Rare Aduentures and painefull Peregrinations of long nineteene Yeares Trauayles, from Scotland, to the most Famous Kingdomes in Europe, Asia, and Affrica (London: Nicholas Okes, 1632), V, 200
  • This Aleppo is a City in Syria; the name of which hath beene so oft changed by Turkes, that the true Antiquity of it, can hardly be knowne: It is both large and populous, and furnished with all sorts of merchandize, especially of Indigo, and Spices, that are brought over land from Goa, & other places in India, which draweth a concurrance of all nations to it.
    • Mesopotamia.
  • Here I remember of a notable obedience done to the great Turke, by the great Bassaw of Aleppo, who was also an Emeere, or hereditary Prince: to wit, the yeare before my comming hither, he had revolted against his Emperour, and fighting the Bassawes of Damascus, and Carahemen, overcame them: The yeare following, and in my being there, the Grand Signior sent from Constantinople a Showse, and two Janisaries in Ambassage to him: where, when they came to Aleppo, the Bassaw was in his owne Countrey at Mesopotamia: The messengers make hast after him, but in their journey they met him comming backe to Aleppo, accompanied with his two sonnes, and sixe hundred Horse-men. Upon the high way they delivered their message, where he stood still, and heard them: The proffer of Achmet was, that if he would acknowledge his rebellion, and for that treason committed send him his head, his eldest Sonne should both inherit his possessions, and Bassawship of Aleppo, otherwise he would come with great forces in all expedition, and in his proper person he would utterly raze him and all his, from the face of the earth.
    • A notable obedience.
  • At which expression, the Bassaw knowing that he was not able to resist the invincible Armie of his Master, and his owne presence, he dismounted from his horse, and went to counsell with his sonnes, and nearest friends: where he, and they concluded, it was best for him to dye, being an old man, to save his race undestroyed, and to keepe his sonne in his authority and inheritance: This done, the Bassaw went to prayer, and taking his leave of them all, sate downe upon his knees, where the Showse stroke off his head, putting it in a Boxe, to carry it with him for Constantinople. The dead corps were carried to Aleppo and honourably buried, for I was an eye witnesse to that funerall feast: And immediatly thereafter, the Showse by Proclamation and power from the Emperour, fully possessed the sonne in his Fathers lands, offices, Bassawship, and the authority of all the Easterne Syria, part of Mesopotamia, and the Assyrian Countrey; for this Bassaw of Aleppo is the greatest in commandement and power of all the other Bassawes in the Turkes dominions; except the Bassa, or Beglerbeg of Damascus; and yet the former in hereditary power, farre exceedeth the other; being a free Emeer, and thereupon a Prince borne: The force of his commandement reacheth to eighteene Sanzacks, and thirty thousand Timariots, besides Janisaries, and other inferiour souldiers, which would make up as many more.
    • The Bassa of Aleppo beheaded.
  • This City is called in the Scriptures Aram-Sobab, 2. Sam. 8. 3. and Aleppo of Alep, which signifieth milke, whereof there is a great plenty here: There are Pigeons brought up here as after an incredible manner, who will flie betweene Aleppo, and Babylon, being thirty dayes journey distant in forty eight houres: carrying letters and newes, which are tied about their neckes, to Merchants of both Townes, and from one to another; who onely are imployed in the time of hasty and needfull intendements; their education to this tractable expedition is admirable, the flights and arrivals of which I have often seene in the time of my wintering in Aleppo, which was the second Winter after my departure from Christendome.
    • Flying Pigeons with letters.
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