General relativity

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General relativity (GR, also known as the general theory of relativity or GTR) is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915 and the current description of gravitation in modern physics. General relativity generalizes special relativity and Newton's law of universal gravitation, providing a unified description of gravity as a geometric property of space and time, or spacetime. In particular, the curvature of spacetime is directly related to the energy and momentum of whatever matter and radiation are present.


  • There was difficulty reconciling the Newtonian theory of gravitation with its instantaneous propagation of forces with the requirements of special relativity; and Einstein working on this difficulty was led to a generalization of his relativity—which was probably the greatest scientific discovery that was ever made.
    • P. A. M. Dirac, quoted in Chandrasekhar, S. "On the “Derivation” of Einstein's Field Equations." American Journal of Physics 40.2 (1972): 224-234.
  • To begin with the difference between my conception and Newton's law of gravitation: Please imagine the earth removed, and in its place suspended a box as big as a room or a whole house and inside a man naturally floating in the centre, there being no for force whatever pulling him. Imagine, further, this box being, by a rope or other contrivance, suddenly jerked to one side, which is scientifically termed 'difform motion,' as opposed to 'uniform motion.' The person would then naturally reach bottom on the opposite side. The result would consequently be the same as if he obeyed Newton's law of gravitation, while, in fact, there is no gravitation exerted whatever, which proves that difform motion will in every case produce the same effects as gravitation.
    I have applied this new idea to every kind of difform motion and have thus developed mathematical formulas which I am convinced give more precise results than those based on Newton's theory. Newton's formulas, however, are such close approximations that it was difficult to find by observation any obvious disagreement with experience.
  • The other constraint in our choice of concepts... lies in Einstein's call for frugality and simplicity. ...the aim of any good theoretical system is "the greatest possible sparsity of the logically independent elements (basic concepts and axioms)." Any redundancy or elaboration must be avoided, for "it is the grand object of all theory to make these irreducible elements as simple and as few in number as possible." For example, it was, in his view, "an unsatisfactory feature of classical mechanics that in its fundamental laws the same mass appears in two different roles, namely as an inertial mass in the laws of motion, and as a gravitational mass in the law of gravitation." The equivalence of these two interpretations of mass signaled to him a truth which needed to be stated as a basic axiom (in General Relativity Theory), rather than saddling the theory with a proliferation which did not seem to be inherent in phenomena.
    • Gerald Holton, The Advancement of Science, and its Burdens (1986) quoting Albert Einstein from, respectively, "Autobiographical notes" in Albert Einstein: Philosopher-scientist, The Library of Living Philosophers (1949) p.13, and from Ideas and Opinions (1954) Tr. Sonja Bargmann, p. 293.
  • It thus characterizes not only the gravitational field but also the behaviour of measuring rods and clocks, i.e. the metric of the four-dimensional world which contains the geometry of ordinary three-dimensional space as a special case. This fusion of two previously quite disconnected subjects—metric and gravitation—must be considered as the most beautiful achievement of the general theory of relativity.
  • The theory of gravitational fields, constructed on the basis of the theory of relativity, is called the general theory of relativity. It was established by Einstein (and finally formulated by him in 1915), and represents probably the most beautiful of all existing physical theories. It is remarkable that it was developed by Einstein in a purely deductive manner and only later was substantiated by astronomical observations.

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