Islam and war

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Quotes about Islam and war. From the time of the Muhammad, the final prophet of Islam, many Muslim states and empires have been involved in warfare. The concept of jihad, the religious duty to struggle, has long been associated with struggles for promoting a religion, although some observers refer to such struggle as "the lesser jihad" by comparison with inner spiritual striving.

See also: Islam and peace

Quotes[edit]

  • Peace is associated in the Qur'an with God, making it the defining feature of the life intended for humanity, to be fully realized ultimately in the next life. Islam recognizes corruption as endemic to humanity and the need for force to maintain political and social peace, within and across societies. Early biographies of the Prophet Muhammad suggest that while he waged war, he always sought a just peace—sometimes over the protests of his companions. Considerable confusion attaches to the concept of jihad, which can be translated as either spiritual or armed struggle. During the early centuries of Islam, scholars set ethical limits on war-making. Intentions had to be pure, and not just self-interested, and the use of force had to be absolutely necessary, for example, to protect the religious community, preserve justice, or defend territory. Therefore, jihad to extend the abode of Islam was driven more by imperial than by religious considerations. The Qur’an forbids coercion in religious affairs: “There is no compulsion in religion.” (Qur’an 2:256) and killing a life without cause is equivalent to "killing the whole human race" (Qur’an 5:32). Modern calls for holy war against the infidels, articulated by Osama bin Laden and others, are at odds with the Islamic tradition and roundly denounced by leading Muslim scholars. Islam is also home to a pacifist current, most richly developed within Sufism.
  • The early Arabic sources quite plainly and frankly describe the expeditions as military expeditions, and it would never have occurred to anyone at that day to interpret them as anything else.... To the folk of his day there would thus be nothing strange in Muhammad, as the head of the community of those who served Allah, taking the sword to extend the kingdom of Allah, and taking measures to insure the subjection of all who lived within the borders of what he made the kingdom of Allah.
    • Arthur, Jeffery, "The Political Importance of Islam," Journal of Near Eastern Studies 1 (1942): 386.
  • The precept of the Koran is, perpetual war against all who deny, that Mahomet is the prophet of God. The vanquished may purchase their lives, by the payment of tribute; the victorious may be appeased by a false and delusive promise of peace; and the faithful follower of the prophet, may submit to the imperious necessities of defeat: but the command to propagate the Moslem creed by the sword is always obligatory, when it can be made effective. The commands of the prophet may be performed alike, by fraud, or by force.
  • Thus the unique formative power of Islam depends on the unique nature of their God. Allah deserves the name of the Master of Armies far more than Jehovah, far more than the Christian God. He is an autocrat in the sense of a general, not that of a tyrant And thus I appear to have it: the Mohammedan faith signifies, as the only one in the world, essentially military discipline. There is no question of right, no begging, no arguing, no crawling to and before God; here mere intention in prayer (Schirk) is a cardinal sin; man has to obey orders like a soldier. Now no one will deny that the form of consciousness of a well-drilled soldier ensures the greatest efficiency of all everywhere where execution and not thinking out of a problem is concerned. The Islamic world represents a single army with a unified, unbroken spirit. Such a spirit melts down all differences in the long runj it makes every one into a comrade.In Islam it has melted down all racial differences. The ritualism of this faith has a different significance from that of Hinduism and Catholicism. It is a question of making discipline objective. When the faithful perform their prayers at fixed hours in the mosque, kneeling there line upon line, when they all go through the same gesture simultaneously, this is not done, as in the case of Hinduism, as a means to self-realisation, but it is done in the spirit in which a Prussian soldier files past his Emperor. This fundamentally military attitude explains all the intrinsic advantages of a Mussulman. It explains simultaneously his fundamental failings: his lad: of progressiveness, his inadaptability, his lad: of inventive power. The soldier only has to obey his orders; the rest is Allah's business.
    • Hermann von Keyserling, THE TRAVEL DIARY OF A PHILOSOPHER VOLUME ONE , p. 204-5, (also quoted in Sita Ram Goel, The Calcutta Quran Petition, ch. 8) [1]
  • The Quranic philosophy of war is immensely rich in its moral and humanitarian contents. The Book prohibits the Muslims from transgressing the divine limits during the conduct of war.It forbids them from practising the savage and inhuman ways and methods of warfare practised during the Days of Ignorance. Though permitted to follow the Law of Equality and Reciprocity in their dealings with their enemies, the Faithful are always counselled to prefer restrain! and tolerance. ' Within its permissible purpose and limits, the Book does not visualise war being waged with 'kid gloves'. It gives us a distinctive concept of total war. It wants both, the nation and the individual, to be at war 'in toto', that is, with all their spiritual, moral and physical resources. The Holy Quran lays the highest emphasis on the preparation for war. It wants us to prepare ourselves for war to the utmost. The test of utmost preparation lies in our capability to instil terror into the hearts of the enemies.
    • Malik, Brigadier S.K., The Quranic Concept of War, Lahore, 1979, p. 143-4

Quotes from the Quran[edit]

  • وَدُّواْ لَوْ تَكْفُرُونَ كَمَا كَفَرُواْ فَتَكُونُونَ سَوَاء فَلاَ تَتَّ ِذُواْ مِنْهُمْ أَوْلِيَاء حَتَّىَ يُهَاجِرُواْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللّهِ فَإِن تَوَلَّوْاْ فَ ُذُوهُمْ وَاقْتُلُوهُمْ حَيْثُ وَجَدتَّمُوهُمْ وَلاَ تَتَّ ِذُواْ مِنْهُمْ وَلِيًّا وَلاَ نَصِيرًا
    إِلاَّ الَّذِينَ يَصِلُونَ إِلَىَ قَوْمٍ بَيْنَكُمْ وَبَيْنَهُم مِّيثَاقٌ أَوْ جَآؤُوكُمْ حَصِرَتْ صُدُورُهُمْ أَن يُقَاتِلُونَكُمْ أَوْ يُقَاتِلُواْ قَوْمَهُمْ وَلَوْ شَاء اللّهُ لَسَلَّطَهُمْ عَلَيْكُمْ فَلَقَاتَلُوكُمْ فَإِنِ اعْتَزَلُوكُمْ فَلَمْ يُقَاتِلُوكُمْ وَأَلْقَوْاْ إِلَيْكُمُ السَّلَمَ فَمَا جَعَلَ اللّهُ لَكُمْ عَلَيْهِمْ سَبِيلاً
    سَتَجِدُونَ آ َرِينَ يُرِيدُونَ أَن يَأْمَنُوكُمْ وَيَأْمَنُواْ قَوْمَهُمْ كُلَّ مَا رُدُّوَاْ إِلَى الْفِتْنِةِ أُرْكِسُواْ فِيِهَا فَإِن لَّمْ يَعْتَزِلُوكُمْ وَيُلْقُواْ إِلَيْكُمُ السَّلَمَ وَيَكُفُّوَاْ أَيْدِيَهُمْ فَ ُذُوهُمْ وَاقْتُلُوهُمْ حَيْثُ ثِقِفْتُمُوهُمْ وَأُوْلَئِكُمْ جَعَلْنَا لَكُمْ عَلَيْهِمْ سُلْطَانًا مُّبِينًا
    • They long that ye should disbelieve even as they disbelieve, that ye may be upon a level (with them). So choose not friends from them till they forsake their homes in the way of Allah; if they turn back (to enmity) then take them and kill them wherever ye find them, and choose no friend nor helper from among them,
      Except those who seek refuge with a people between whom and you there is a covenant, or (those who) come unto you because their hearts forbid them to make war on you or make war on their own folk. Had Allah willed He could have given them power over you so that assuredly they would have fought you. So, if they hold aloof from you and wage not war against you and offer you peace, Allah alloweth you no way against them. Ye will find others who desire that they should have security from you, and security from their own folk. So often as they are returned to hostility they are plunged therein. If they keep not aloof from you nor offer you peace nor hold their hands, then take them and kill them wherever ye find them. Against such We have given you clear warrant.
    • They wish that you should disbelieve as they disbelieve, and then you would be equal; therefore take not to yourselves friends of them, until they emigrate in the way of God; then, if they turn their backs, take them, and slay them wherever you find them; take not to yourselves any one of them as friend or helper
      except those that betake themselves to a people who are joined with you by a compact, or come to you with breasts constricted from fighting with you or fighting their people. Had God willed, He would have given them authority over you, and then certainly they would have fought you. If they withdraw from you, and do not fight you, and offer you peace, then God assigns not any way to you against them.
      You will find others desiring to be secure from you, and secure from their people, yet whenever they are returned to temptation, they are overthrown in it. If they withdraw not from you, and offer you peace, and restrain their hands, take them, and slay them wherever you come on them; against them We have given you a clear authority.
  • وَلاَ يَحْسَبَنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ سَبَقُواْ إِنَّهُمْ لاَ يُعْجِزُونَ
    وَأَعِدُّواْ لَهُم مَّا اسْتَطَعْتُم مِّن قُوَّةٍ وَمِن رِّبَاطِ الْ َيْلِ تُرْهِبُونَ بِهِ عَدْوَّ اللّهِ وَعَدُوَّكُمْ وَآ َرِينَ مِن دُونِهِمْ لاَ تَعْلَمُونَهُمُ اللّهُ يَعْلَمُهُمْ وَمَا تُنفِقُواْ مِن شَيْءٍ فِي سَبِيلِ اللّهِ يُوَفَّ إِلَيْكُمْ وَأَنتُمْ لاَ تُظْلَمُونَ
    وَإِن جَنَحُواْ لِلسَّلْمِ فَاجْنَحْ لَهَا وَتَوَكَّلْ عَلَى اللّهِ إِنَّهُ هُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ
    • And let not those who disbelieve suppose that they can outstrip (Allah's Purpose). Lo! they cannot escape.
      Make ready for them all thou canst of (armed) force and of horses tethered, that thereby ye may dismay the enemy of Allah and your enemy, and others beside them whom ye know not. Allah knoweth them. Whatsoever ye spend in the way of Allah it will be repaid to you in full, and ye will not be wronged.
      And if they incline to peace, incline thou also to it, and trust in Allah. Lo! He, even He, is the Hearer, the Knower.
    • And thou art not to suppose that they who disbelieve have outstripped Me; they cannot frustrate My will.
      Make ready for them whatever force and strings of horses you can, to terrify thereby the enemy of God and your enemy, and others besides them that you know not; God knows them. And whatsoever you expend in the way of God shall be repaid you in full; you will not be wronged.
      And if they incline to peace, do thou incline to it; and put thy trust in God; He is the All-hearing, the All-knowing.
  • The believers who stay at home - apart from those that suffer from a grave impediment - are not equal to those -who fight for the cause of Allah with their goods and their persons. Allah has given those that fight with their goods and their persons a higher rank than those who stay at home. He has promised all a good reward: but far richer is the recompense of those who fight for Him: rank of His own bestowal, forgiveness, and mercy. Allah is forgiving and merciful.
    • Surah 4: ayats 95-96.
  • Those who make war with God and his messenger will be killed or crucified, or have their hands and feet on alternate sides cut off, or will be expelled out of the land. That is how they will be treated in this world, and in the next they will have an awful doom.
    • Original: إِنَّمَا جَزَاء الَّذِينَ يُحَارِبُونَ اللّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَيَسْعَوْنَ فِي الأَرْضِ فَسَاداً أَن يُقَتَّلُواْ أَوْ يُصَلَّبُواْ أَوْ تُقَطَّعَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَأَرْجُلُهُم مِّنْ خِلافٍ أَوْ يُنفَوْاْ مِنَ الأَرْضِ ذَلِكَ لَهُمْ خِزْيٌ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَلَهُمْ فِي الآخِرَةِ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ
    • The Qur'an (القرآن), Sura 5:33
  • حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ، حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الرَّزَّاقِ، أَخْبَرَنَا مَعْمَرٌ، عَنْ هَمَّامٍ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ ـ رضى الله عنه ـ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏ "‏ هَلَكَ كِسْرَى ثُمَّ لاَ يَكُونُ كِسْرَى بَعْدَهُ، وَقَيْصَرٌ لَيَهْلِكَنَّ ثُمَّ لاَ يَكُونُ قَيْصَرٌ بَعْدَهُ، وَلَتُقْسَمَنَّ كُنُوزُهَا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ ‏"‏‏.‏

وَسَمَّى الْحَرْبَ خَدْعَةً

  • Narrated Ka'b ibn Malik: When the Prophet (peace be upon him) intended to go on an expedition, he always pretended to be going somewhere else, and he would say: War is deception.
    • Abu Dawud 14:2631
  • Fighting is obligatory for you, much as you dislike it. (II.216)
  • You shall not wed pagan women, unless they embrace the Faith. A believing slave-girl is better than an idolatress, although she may please you. Nor shall you wed idolaters, unless they embrace the Faith. A believing slave is better than an idolator, although he may please you. (11.221)
  • Let believers not make friends with infidels in preference to the faithful-he that does this has nothing to hope for from God. (111.28)
  • He that chooses a religion other than Islam, it will not be accepted from him and in the world to come he will be one of the lost. (111.85)
  • Believers, do not make friends with any but your own people. (111.1 18)
  • Did you suppose that you would enter Paradise before God has proved the men who fought for Him and endured with fortitude? (Ill.142)
    • Those of you who ran away on the day the two armies met must have been seduced by Satan on account of some evil they had done.... Believers, do not follow the example of the infidels, who say of their brothers when they meet death abroad or in battle: "had they stayed with us they would not have died, nor would they have been killed." God will cause them to regret their words. (111. 155-58)
  • Never think that those who were slain in the cause of God are dead. They are alive, and well-provided for by their Lord. (111. 169)
  • Therefore fight for the cause of God. (IV.84)
  • The believers who stay at home ... are not equal to those who fight for the cause of God with their goods and their persons. (IV.95-96)
  • He that flies his homeland for the cause of God shall find numerous places o f refuge in the land and great abundance. He that leaves his dwelling to fight for God and His apostle and is then overtaken by death, shall be rewarded by God. God is forgiving and merciful. (IV.100)
  • The unbelievers are your inveterate enemies. (IV.101)
  • Believers, do not choose the infidels rather than the faithful for your friends. (IV. 144)
  • They [the Christians] denied the truth and uttered a monstrous falsehood against Mary. And because of their saying: We killed the Messiah Jesus son of Mary, Allah's messenger. They did not kill him nor did they crucify him, but theythought they did. (IV.156-57)
  • With those who said they were Christians We made a covenant also, but they too have forgotten much of what they were enjoined. Therefore We stirred a m ong them enmity and hatred, which shall endure till the Day of Resurrection, when God will declare to them all that they have done (V.14)
  • As for the unbelievers, if they offered all that the earth contains and as much besides to redeem themselves from the torment of the Day of Resurrection, i t shall not be accepted from them. Theirs shall be a woeful punishment. (V.36)
  • O you who believe! Take not the Jews and the Christians for friends. They are friends one to another. He among you who takes them for friends is one of them. (V.51)
  • Unbelievers are those that say: "God is the Messiah, the son of Mary." . . . Unbelievers are those that say: "God is one of three." (V.72-73)
  • Then God will say: "Jesus, son of Mary, did you ever say to mankind: `Worship me and my mother as gods besides God'?" "Glory to You," he will answer, "how could I ever say that to which I have no right? If I had ever said so, You would have surely known it...." (V.116)
  • On the day when We gather them all together We shall say to the pagans: "Where are your idols now, those whom you supposed to be your gods?" They will not argue, but say: "By God, our Lord, we have never worshipped idols." You shall see how they will lie against themselves and how the deities of their own invention will forsake them. (VI.22-24)
  • The idolaters will say: "Had God pleased, neither we nor our fathers would have served other gods besides Him; nor would we have made anything unlawful." In like manner did those who have gone before them deny the Truth until they felt Our scourge. (VI.149)
  • God revealed His will to the angels, saying: "I shall be with you. Give courage to the believers. I shall cast terror into the hearts of the infidels. Strike off their heads, strike off the very tips of their fingers!" (VIII. 12)
  • That was because they defied God and His apostle. He that defies God and His apostle shall be sternly punished by God. We said to them: "Taste this. The scourge of the Fire await the unbelievers." (VIII. 13-14)
  • Believers, when you encounter the infidels on the march, do not turn your backs to them in flight. If anyone on that day turns his back to them, except for tactical reasons, or to join another band, he shall incur the wrath of God and Hell shall be his home: an evil fate. (VIII.15-16)
  • Make war on them until idolatry shall cease and God's religion shall reign supreme. (VIII.39)
  • The basest creatures in the sight of God are the faithless who will not believe. (VIII.55)
  • Prophet, rouse the faithful to arms. If there are twenty steadfast men among you, they shall vanquish two hundred; if there are a hundred, they shall rout a thousand unbelievers, for they are devoid of understanding. (VIII.65)
  • It is not for any Prophet to have captives until he has made slaughter in the land. (VIII.67)
  • When the sacred months are over slay the idolaters wherever you find them. Arrest them, besiege them, and lie in ambush everywhere for them. If they repent and take to prayer and render the alms levy, allow them to go their way. God is forgiving and merciful. (IX.5)
  • Make war on them: God will chastise them at your hands and humble them. (IX.14)
  • It ill becomes the idolaters to visit the mosques of God, for they are self- confessed unbelievers. Vain shall be their works, and in the Fire they shall abide for ever. (IX.17)
  • Believers, do not befriend your fathers or your brothers if they choose unbelief in preference to faith. Wrongdoers are those that befriend them. (IX.23)
  • Believers, know that the idolaters are unclean. Let them not approach the Sacred Mosque after this year is ended. (IX.28)Fight against such of those to whom the Scriptures were given as believe neither in God nor the Last Day, who do not forbid what God and His apostle have forbidden, and do not embrace the true faith, until they pay tribute out of hand and are utterly subdued. (IX.29)
  • But you fight against the idolaters in all these months since they themselvesfight against you in all of them. (IX.36)
  • If you do not fight, He will punish you sternly, and replace you by other men. (IX.39)
  • Whether unarmed or well-equiped, march on and fight for the cause of God, with your wealth and with your persons. This will be best for you, if you but knew it. (IX.41)
  • Prophet, make war on the unbelievers and the hypocrites and deal rigorously with them. Hell shall be their home: an evil fate. (IX.73)
  • God has purchased from the faithful their lives and worldly goods and in return has promised them the Garden. They will fight for the cause of God, slay and be slain. (IX.I11)
  • Believers, make war on the infidels who dwell around you. Deal firmly with them. Know that God is with the righteous. (IX.123)
  • Here are two antagonists who contend about their Lord. Garments of fire have been prepared for the unbelievers. Scalding water shall be poured upon their heads, melting their skins and that which is in their bellies. They shall be lashed with rods of iron. Whenever, in their anguish, they try to escape from Hell, back they shall be dragged, and will be told: "Taste the torment of the Conflagration." (XXII. 19-22)
  • Do not yield to the unbelievers, but fight them with this, most strenuously. (XXV.52)
  • When you meet the unbelievers in the battlefield strike off their heads and, when you have laid them low, bind your captives firmly. Then grant them their freedom or take ransom from them until War shall lay down her burdens. (XLVII.4)
  • Kill those who join other gods with God wherever you may find them. (IX.5- 6)
  • Those who believe fight in the cause of God.... (IV.76)
  • I will instill terror into the hearts of the Infidels, strike off their heads then, and strike off from them every fingertip. (VIII.12)
  • Say to the Infidels: If they desist from their unbelief, what is now past shall be forgiven them; but if they return to it, they have already before them the doom of the ancients! Fight then against them till strife be at an end, and the religion be all of it God's. (VIII.39-42)
  • The believers who stay at home ... are not equal to those who fight for the cause of God.... God has promised all a good reward, but far richer is the recompense of those who fight for Him.... (IV.95)
  • Believers, when you meet the unbelievers preparing for battle do not turn your backs to them. [Anyone who does] shall incur the wrath of God and hell shall be his home: an evil dwelling indeed. (VIII.15,16)
  • If you do not fight, He will punish you severely, and put others in your place. (IX.39)
  • Let those fight in the cause of God who barter the life of this world for that which is to come; for whoever fights on God's path, whether he is killed or triumphs, We will give him a handsome reward. (IV.74)
  • Fight against them until sedition is no more and Allah's religion reigns supreme. (11.193)
  • Fighting is obligatory for you, much as you dislike it. But you may hate a thing although it is good for you, and love a thing although it is bad for you. Allah knows, but you do not. (11.216)
  • Whether unarmed or well-equipped, march on and fight for the cause of Allah, with your wealth and your persons. This is best for you, if you but knew it. (1X.41)
  • Believers! Make war on the infidels who dwell around you let them find harshness in you. (1X.123)
  • O Prophet! Make war on the unbelievers and the hypocrites and deal sternly with them hell shall be their home, evil their fate. (LXVI.9)O Prophet! Make war on the unbelievers and the hypocrites. Be harsh with them. Their ultimate abode is hell, a hapless journey's end. (IX.73)
  • O Prophet! Exhort the believers to fight. If there are twenty steadfast men among you, they shall vanquish two hundred; and if there are a hundred, they shall rout a thousand unbelievers, for they are devoid of understanding. (VIII.65)
  • When you meet the unbelievers in the battlefield strike off their heads and when you have laid them low, bind your captives firmly.... (XLVII.4-15)
  • Do not yield to the unbelievers, but fight them strenuously with this Koran. (XXV.52)
  • It is not for any Prophet to have captives until he has made slaughter in the land.... (VIII.67)
  • The cult of heroism and the cult of death is beautifully exemplified in the Muslim cult of martyrdom. The Koran promises paradise with its seductive houris to all those who die in the cause of Islam: Allah has purchased of their faithful lives and worldly goods and in return has promised them the Garden. They will fight for His cause, kill and be killed. (IX.I 11)
  • You must not think that those who were slain in the cause of Allah are dead. They are alive, and well-provided for by their Lord.... (111.169-71)
  • If you should die or be killed in the cause of Allah, His mercy and forgiveness would surely be better than all the riches that amass. If you should die or be killed, before Him you shall all be gathered. (111.157-58)

Quotes from the Hadith[edit]

Quotes from Bukhari[edit]

Hadith on jihad from al-Bukhari, Sahuh, trans. Muhsin M. Khan (New Delhi: Kitab Bhavan, 1987), 9 vols.
From Volume I
  • Muhammad said, "The person who participates in (holy battles) in Allah's cause and nothing compels him to do so except belief in Allah and HisApostles, will be recompensed by Allah either with a reward, or booty (if he survives) or will be admitted to Paradise (if he is killed in the battle as a martyr). Had I not found it difficult for my followers, then I would not remain behind any sariya [army unit] going for Jihad and I would have loved to be martyred in Allah's cause and then made alive, and then martyred and then made alive and then again martyred in His cause. (1:35)
From Volume 4
  • Abdullah bin Masud said, "I asked Allah's Apostle, '0 Allah's Apostle! What is the best deed?' He replied, `To offer the prayers at their early stated fixed times.' I asked, `What is next in goodness?' He replied, `To be good and dutiful to your parents.' I further asked, `What is next in goodness?' He replied, `To participate in Jihad in Allah's cause.' " (4:41)
  • Muhammad said, "There is no Hijra (i.e., migration from Mecca to Medina) after the conquest (of Mecca), but Jihad and good intention [to fight in Jihad] remain; and if you are called (by the Muslim ruler) for fighting, go forth immediately." (4:42, 4:311)
  • A man came to Muhammad and said, "Instruct me as to such a deed as equals Jihad (in reward)." He replied, "I do not find such a deed." Then he added, "Can you, while the Muslim fighter is in the battle-field, enter your mosque to perform prayers without cease and fast and never break your fast?" The man said, "But who can do that?" (4:44)
  • Someone asked, "0 Allah's Apostle! Who is the best among the people?" Allah's Apostle replied, "A believer who strives his utmost in Allah's cause with his life and property." They asked, "Who is next?" He replied, "A believer who stays in one of the mountain paths worshiping Allah and leaving the people secure from his mischief." (4:45)
  • Muhammad said, ". . . Allah guarantees the He will admit the Mujahid [one who fights in Jihad] in His cause into Paradise if he is killed, otherwise He will return him to his home safely with rewards and war booty." (4:46)
  • Muhammad said, "Last night two men came to me (in a dream) and made m e ascend a tree and then admitted me into a better and superior house, better of which I have never seen. One of them said, `This house is the house of martyrs.' " (4:49)Muhammad said, "A single endeavour (of fighting) in Allah's cause in the forenoon or in the afternoon is better than the world and whatever is in it." (4:50)
  • Muhammad said, "Nobody who dies and finds good from Allah (in the hereafter) would wish to come back to this world even if he were given the whole world and whatever is in it, except the martyr who, on seeing the superiority of martyrdom, would like to come back to the world and get killed again (in Allah's cause)." (4:53)
  • Muhammad said, "Nobody who enters Paradise likes to go back to the world even if he got everything on the earth, except a Mujahid [one who fights in Jihad] who wishes to return to the world so that he may be martyred ten times because of the dignity he receives (from Allah)." (4:72)
  • Muhammad said, "Were it not for the fear that it would be difficult for my followers, I would not have remained behind any Sariya (army unit) but I don't have riding camels and have no other means of conveyance to carry them on, and it is hard for me that my companions should remain behind me. No doubt I wish I could fight in Allah's cause and be martyred and come to life again to be martyred and come to life once more." (4:216)
  • A man came to the Prophet and asked, "A man fights for war booty; another fights for fame and a third fights for showing off. Which of them fights in Allah's cause?" The prophet said, "He who fights that Allah's Word (i.e., Islam) should be superior, fights in Allah's cause." (4:65)
  • Muhammad said, "Anyone whose both feet get covered with dust in Allah's cause will not be touched by the (hell) fire." (4:66)
  • Al-Mughira bin Shu'ba said, "Our Prophet told us about the message of our Lord that ". . . whoever amongst us is killed will go to Paradise." Umar asked the Prophet, "Is it not true that our men who are killed will go to Paradise and their's (i.e., those of the pagans) will go to the (hell)fire?" The Prophet said, "Yes." (4:72b)
  • Muhammad said, "Know that Paradise is under the shades of swords." (4:73)
  • Once Allah's Apostle (during a holy battle), waited till the sun had declined and then he got up among the people and said, "0 people! Do not wish to face the enemy (in a battle) and ask Allah to save you (from calamities) but if you should face the enemy, then be patient and let it be known to you thatParadise is under the shades of swords." He then said, "0 Allah! The Revealer of the (holy) Book, the Mover of the clouds, and Defeater of Al- Ahzab (i.e., the clans of infidels), defeat the infidels and bestow victory upon us." (4:210)
  • Muhammad said, "Allah welcomes two men with a smile. One of whom kills the other and both of them enter Paradise. One fights in Allah's cause and gets killed. Later on Allah forgives the killer (i.e., he embraces Islam) who also get martyred (in Allah's cause)." (4:80)
  • Muhammad said, "He who prepares a ghazi going in Allah's cause is (given a reward equal to that of) a ghazi; and he who looks after properly the dependents of a ghazi going in Allah's cause is (given a reward equal to that of) a ghazi." (4:96)
  • Aisha (one of Muhammad's wives) said, "I requested the Prophet to permit m e to participate in Jihad, but he said, `Your Jihad is the performance of Hajj [the annual pilgrimage to Mecca].' " (4:127)
  • Anas said, "On the day (of the battle) of Uhud when (some) people retreated and left the Prophet I saw Aisha bint Abi Bakr and um Sulaim [two women], with their robes tucked up so that the bangles around their ankles were visible hurrying with their water skins. Then they would pour the water in the mouths of the people, and return to fill the water skins again and came back again to pour water in the mouths of the people." (4:131)
  • Muhammad said, ". . . Paradise is for him who holds the reins of his horse to strive in Allah's cause, with his hair unkempt and feet covered with dust. If h e is appointed in the vanguard, he is perfectly satisfied with his post of guarding, and if he is appointed in the rearguard, he accepts his post with satisfaction." (4:137)
  • Muhammad said, "A time will come when groups of people will go for Jihad and it will be asked, `Is there anyone amongst you who has enjoyed the company of the Prophet?' The answer will be `Yes.' Then they will be given victory (by Allah). Then a time will come when it will be asked, `Is there anyone amongst you who has enjoyed the company of the companions of the Prophet?' It will be said, `Yes,' and they will be given the victory (by Allah). Then a time will come when it will be said, `Is there anyone amongst you who has enjoyed the company of the companions of the companions of theProphet?' It will be said, `Yes,' and they will be given victory (by Allah)." (4:146)
  • Sahl bin Sa'd As-Sa'idi said, "Allah's Apostle and the pagans faced each other and started fighting. When Allah's Apostle returned to his camp and when the pagans returned to their camp, somebody talked about a man amongst the companions of Allah's Apostle who would follow and kill with his sword any pagan going alone. He said, `Nobody did his job (i.e., fighting) so properly today as that man.' Allah's Apostle said, `Indeed, he is amongst the people of the (hell) fire.' A man amongst the people said, `I shall accompany him (to watch what he does).' Thus he accompanied him, and wherever he stood, he would stand with him, and wherever he ran, he would run with him. Then the (brave) man got wounded seriously and he decided to bring about his death quickly. He planted the blade of the sword in the ground directing its sharp end towards his chest between his two breasts. Then he leaned on the sword and killed himself. The other man came to Allah's Apostle and said, `I testify that you are Allah's Apostle.' The Prophet asked, `What has happened?' He replied, `(It is about) the man whom you had described as one of the people of the (hell) fire. The people were greatly surprised at what you said, and I said, "I will find out his reality f o r you." So, I came out seeking him. He got severely wounded, and hastened to die by planting the blade of his sword in the ground directing its sharp end towards his chest between his two breasts. Then he leaned on his sword and killed himself.' Then Allah's Apostle said, `A man may seem to the people as if he were practicing the deeds of the people of Paradise while in fact he is from the people of the (hell) fire, another may seem to the people as if he were practicing the deeds of the people of hell (fire), while in fact he is from the people of Paradise.' " (4:147)
  • Muhammad said, "My livelihood is under the shade of my spear, and he who disobeys my orders will be humiliated by paying Jizya." (4:162b)
  • Umair said, "Urn Haram informed us that she heard the Prophet saying, 'Paradise is granted to the first batch of my followers who will undertake a naval expedition.' Um Haram added, `I said, 0 Allah's Apostle! Will I be amongst them?' He replied, `You are amongst them.' The Prophet then said, `The first army amongst my followers who will invade Caesar's city will be forgiven their sins.' I asked, `Will I be one of them, 0 Allah's Apostle?' He replied in the negative." (4:175)
  • Muhammad said, "The hour will not be established until you fight with the Turks; people with small eyes, red faces, and flat noses. Their faces will look like shields coated with leather. The hour will not be established till you fight with people whose shoes are made of hair." (4:179)
  • Ali said, "When it was the day of the battle of Al-Ahzab (i.e., the clans), Allah's Apostle said, `O Allah! Fill their (i.e., the infidels') houses and graves with fire as they busied us so much that we did not perform the prayer (i.e., `Asr) till the sun had set. ' " (4:182)
  • Aisha said, "Once the Jews came to the Prophet and said, `Death be upon you.' So I cursed them. The Prophet said, `What is the matter?' I said, `Have you not heard what they said?' The Prophet said, `Have you not heard what I replied (to them)? (I said), ("The same is upon you.").' " (4:186)
  • On the day of the battle of Khaibar, Sahl bin Sa'd heard Muhammad say, "I will give the flag to a person at whose hands Allah will grant victory." So, the companions of the Prophet got up, wishing eagerly to see to whom the flag will be given, and everyone of them wished to be given the flag. But the Prophet asked for Ali. Someone informed him that he was suffering from eye-trouble. So, he ordered them to bring Ali in front of him. Then the Prophet spat in his eyes and his eyes were cured immediately as if he had never any eye-trouble. Ali said, "We will fight with them (i.e., infidels) till they become like us (i.e., Muslims)." The Prophet said, "Be patient, till you face them and invite them to Islam and inform them of what Allah has enjoined upon them. By Allah! If a single person embraces Islam at your hands (i.e., through you), that will be better for you than the red camels." (4:192)
  • Anas said, "Whenever Allah's Apostle attacked some people, he would never attack them till it was dawn. If he heard the adhan (i.e., call for prayer) he would delay the fight, and if he did not hear the adhan, he would attack them immediately after dawn." (4:193)
  • Anas said, "The Prophet set out for Khaibar and reached it at night. He used not to attack if he reached the people at night, till the day broke. So, when the day dawned, the Jews came out with their bags and spades. When they saw the Prophet they said, `Muhammad and his army!' The Prophet said, `Allahu- Akbar! (Allah is Greater) and Khaibar is ruined, for whenever we approach a nation (i.e., enemy to fight) then it will be a miserable morningfor those who have been warned.' " (4:195)
  • Muhammad said, "I have been ordered to fight with the people till they say, `None has the right to be worshiped but Allah,' and whoever says, `None has the right to be worshiped by Allah,' his life and property will be saved by me except for Islamic law, and his accounts will be with Allah (either to punish him or to forgive him.)" (4:196)
  • Kalb bin Malik said, "Whenever Allah's Apostle intended to carry out a Ghazwa, he would use an equivocation to conceal his real destination till it was the Ghazwa of Tabuk which Allah's Apostle carried out in very hot weather. As he was going to face a very long journey through a wasteland and was to meet and attack a large number of enemies. So, he made the situation clear to the Muslims so that they might prepare themselves accordingly and get ready to conquer their enemy." (4:198)
  • Muhammad said, "... I have been made victorious with terror (cast in the hearts of the enemy)...." (4:220)
  • Abdullah bin Amr said, "A man came to the Prophet asking his permission t o take part in Jihad. The Prophet asked him, `Are your parents alive?' He replied in the affirmative. The Prophet said to him, `Then exert yourself in their service.' " (4:248)
  • As-Sa'b bin Jaththama said, "The Prophet ... was asked whether it was permissible to attack the pagan warriors at night with the probability of exposing their women and children to danger. The Prophet replied, `They (i.e., women and children) are from them (i.e., pagans). ' " (4:256)
  • Abu Huraira said, "Allah's Apostle sent us in a mission (i.e., an army-unit) and said, 'If you find so-and-so and so-and-so, burn both of them with fire.' When we intended to depart, Allah's Apostle said, 'I have ordered you to burn so-andso and so-and-so, and it is none but Allah Who punishes with fire, so, if you find them, kill them.' " (4:259)
  • Ikrima said, "Ali burnt some people and this news reached Ibn Abbas, who said, 'Had I been in his place I would not have burnt them, as the Prophet said, "Don't punish (anybody) with Allah's punishment." No doubt, I would have killed them, for the Prophet said, "If somebody (a Muslim) discards his religion, kill him." ' " (4:260)Anas bin Malik said, "A group of eight men from the tribe of Ukil came to the Prophet and then they found the climate of Medina unsuitable for them. So, they said, `O Allah's Apostle! Provide us with some milk.' Allah's apostle said, `I recommend that you should join the herd of camels.' So they went and drank the urine and the milk of the camels (as a medicine) till they became healthy and fat. Then they killed the shepherd and drove away the camels, and they became unbelievers after they were Muslims. When the Prophet was informed by a shouter for help, he sent some men in their pursuit, and before the sun rose high, they were brought and he had their hands and feet cut off. Then he ordered for nails which were heated and passed over their eyes, and they were left in the Harra (i.e., rocky land in Medina). They asked for water, and nobody provided them with water till they died." (4:261)
  • Al-Bara bin Azib said, "Allah's Apostle sent a group of Ansari men to kill Abu- Rafi'. One of them set out and entered their (i.e., the enemies') fort. That man said, `I hid myself ... and came upon Abu Rafi' and said, "0 Abu Rati'." When he replied me, I proceeded towards the voice and hit him. He shouted and I came out to come back, pretending to be a helper. I said, "0 Abu Rafi'." changing the tone of my voice ... I asked him, "What happened to you?" He said, "I don't know who came to me and hit me." Then I drove my sword into his belly and pushed it forcibly till it touched the bone. Then I came out, filled with puzzlement and went towards a ladder of theirs in order to get down but I fell down and sprained my foot. I came to my companions and said, "I will not leave till I hear the wailing of the women." So, I did not leave till I heard the women bewailing Abu Rafi', the mercant of Hijaz. Then I got up, feeling no ailment, (and we proceeded) till we came upon the Prophet and informed him.' " (4:264; 4:267, 269 Muhammad said, "War is deceit.") Jabir bin Abdullah said, "The Prophet said, `Who is ready to kill Ka'b bin AlAshraf who has really hurt Allah and His Apostle?' Muhammad bin Maslama said, `O Allah's Apostle! Do you like me to kill him?' He replied in the affirmative. So, Muhammad bin Maslama went to him (i.e., Kalb) and said, `This person (i.e., the Prophet) has put us to task and asked us for charity.' Kalb replied, `By Allah, you will get tired of him.' Muhammad said to him, `We have followed him, so we dislike to leave him till we see the end of his affair.' Muhammad bin Maslama went on talking to him in this way till he got the chance to kill him." (4:270)Anas bin Malik said, "Allah's Apostle entered (Mecca) in the year of the conquest (of Mecca) wearing a helmet over his head. After he took it off, a man came and said, `Ibn Khatal is clinging to the curtains of the Ka'ba.' The Prophet said, `Kill him. "' (4:280b)
  • Salarma bin Al-Akwa said, "An infidel spy came to the Prophet while he was on a journey. The spy sat with the companions of the Prophet and started talking and then went away. The Prophet said, (to his companions), `Chase and kill him.' So, I killed him." (4:286)
  • Ibn Abbas said, ". . . The Prophet on his death-bed, gave three orders saying, `Expel the pagans from the Arabian Peninsula....... (4:288)
  • Abdullah said, "When the Prophet returned (from Jihad), he would say Takbir thrice and add, 'We are returning, if Allah wishes, with repentance and worshiping and praising (our Lord) and prostrating ourselves before our Lord. Allah fulfilled His promise and helped His slave, and He alone defeated the (infidel) clans.' " (4:317)


  • Vol. 4, bk. 52, no. 46: Narrated Abu Huraira: I heard Allah's Apostle saying, "The example of a Mujahid in Allah's Cause-and Allah knows better who really strives in His Cause-is like a person who fasts and prays continuously. Allah guarantees that He will admit the Mujahid in His Cause into Paradise if he is killed, otherwise He will return him to his home safely with rewards and war booty (maal-e-gani-maat)."
  • Vol. 4, bk. 52, no. 53: Narrated Anas bin Malik: The Prophet said, "Nobody who dies and finds good from Allah (in the Hereafter) would wish to come back to this world even if he were given the whole world and whatever is in it, except the martyr who, on seeing the superiority of martyrdom, would like to come back to the world and get killed again (in Allah's Cause)."
  • Vol. 4, bk. 52, no. 48: Narrated Anas: The Prophet said, "A single endeavor (of fighting) in Allah's Cause in the afternoon or in the forenoon is better than all the world and whatever is in it. A place in Paradise as small as the bow or lash of one of you is better than all the world and whatever is in it. And if a houri from Paradise appeared to the people of the earth, she would fill the space between Heaven and the Earth with light and pleasant scent and her head cover is better than the world and whatever is in it."
  • Vol. 4, bk. 52, no. 44: Narrated Abu Huraira: A man came to Allah's Apostle and said, "Instruct me as to such a deed as equals Jihad (in reward)." He replied, "I do not find such a deed." Then he added, "Can you, while the Muslim fighter is in the battle-field, enter your mosque to perform prayers without cease and fast and never break your fast?" The man said, "But who can do that?" Abu- Huraira added, "The Mujahid (i.e. Muslim fighter) is rewarded even for the footsteps of his horse while it wanders bout (for grazing) tied in a long rope."
  • Vol. 4, U. 52, no. 49: Narrated Samura: The Prophet said, "Last night two men came to me (in a dream) and made me ascend a tree and then admitted me into a better and superior house, better of which I have never seen. One of them said, `This house is the house of martyrs."'
  • Vol. 4, bk. 52, no. 50: Narrated Anas bin Malik: The Prophet said, "A single endeavor (of fighting) in Allah's Cause in the forenoon or in the afternoon is better than the world and whatever is in it."
  • Vol. 4, U. 52, no. 42: Narrated Ibn `Abbas: Allah's Apostle said, "There is no Hijra (i.e. migration) (from Mecca to Medina) after the Conquest (of Mecca), but Jihad and good intention remain; and if you are called (by the Muslim ruler) for fighting, go forth immediately."
  • Vol. 4, U. 52, no. 4: Narrated Abu Huraira: The Prophet said, "By Him in Whose Hands my life is! Were it not for some men amongst the believers who dislike to be left behind me and whom I cannot provide with means of conveyance, I would certainly never remain behind any Sariya' (army-unit) setting out in Allah's Cause. By Him in Whose Hands my life is! I would love to be martyred in Allah's Cause and then get resurrected and then get martyred, and then get resurrected again and then get martyred and then get resurrected again and then get martyred."
  • Vol. 4, U. 52, no. 52: Narrated Anas bin Malik: Prophet of Allah said, "Zaid took the flag and was martyred, and then Ja'far took the flag and was martyred, and then `Abdullah bin Rawaha took the flag and was martyred too, and then Khalid bin Al-Walid took the flag though he was not appointed as a commander and Allah made him victorious." The Prophet further added, "It would not please us to have them with us." Aiyub, a sub-narrator, added, "Or the Prophet, shedding tears, said, `It would not please them to be with us."
  • Vol. 4, U. 52, no. 61: Narrated Anas: My uncle Anas bin An-Nadr was absent from the Battle of Badr. He said, "0 Allah's Apostle! I was absent from the first battle you fought against the pagans. (By Allah) if Allah gives me a chance to fight the pagans, no doubt. Allah will see how (bravely) I will fight." On the day of Uhud when the Muslims turned their backs and fled, he said, "0 Allah! I apologize to You for what these (i.e. his companions) have done, and I denounce what these (i.e. the pagans) have done." Then he advanced and Sad bin Muadh met him. He said "0 Sad bin Muadh ! By the Lord of An-Nadr, Paradise! I am smelling its aroma coming from before (the mountain of) Uhud," Later on Sad said, "0 Allah's Apostle! I cannot achieve or do what he (i.e. Anas bin An-Nadr) did. We found more than eighty wounds by swords and arrows on his body. We found him dead and his body was mutilated so badly that none except his sister could recognize him by his fingers."
  • Vol. 4, bk. 52, no. 63: Narrated Al-Bara: A man whose face was covered with an iron mask (i.e. clad in armor) came to the Prophet and said, "0 Allah's Apostle! Shall I fight or embrace Islam first?" The Prophet said, "Embrace Islam first and then fight." So he embraced Islam, and was martyred. Allah's Apostle said, "A Little work, but a great reward." (He did very little (after embracing Islam), but he will be rewarded in abundance).
  • Vol. 4, bk. 52, no. 64: Narrated Anas bin Malik: Um Ar-Rubai'bint Al-Bara', the mother of Hartha bin Suraqa came to the Prophet and said, "0 Allah's Prophet! Will you tell me about Hartha?" Hartha has been killed (i.e. martyred) on the day of Badr with an arrow thrown by an unidentified person. She added, "If he is in Paradise, I will be patient; otherwise, I will weep bitterly for him." He said, "0 mother of Hartha! There are Gardens in Paradise and your son got the Firdausal- ala (i.e. the best place in Paradise)."
From Volume 9
  • Ali said, ". . . no Muslim should be killed ... for killing a kafir (disbeliever)." (9:50; 4:283)
  • Some Zanadiqa (atheists) were brought to Ali and he burnt them. The news o f this event, reached Ibn Abbas who said, "If I had been in his place, I would not have burnt them, as Allah's Apostle forbade it, saying, `Do not punish anybody with Allah's punishment (fire).' I would have killed them according to the statement of Allah's Apostle, `Whoever changed his Islamic religion, then kill him.' " (9:57)

Quotes from Sahih Muslim[edit]

Chapter 1
  • No. 4292: Ibn 'Ann reported: I wrote to Nafi' inquiring from him whether it was necessary to extend (to the disbelievers) an invitation to accept (Islam) before m." ing them in fight. He wrote (in reply) to me that it was necessary in the early days of Islam. The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) made a raid upon Bann Mustaliq while they were unaware and their cattle were having a drink at the water. He killed those who fought and imprisoned others. On that very day, he captured Juwairiya hint al-Harith. Nafi' said that this tradition was related to him by Abdullah b. Umar who (himself) was among the raiding troops.
Chapter 2
  • No. 4294: It has been reported from Sulaiman b. Buraid through his father that when the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) appointed anyone as leader of an army or detachment he would especially exhort him to fear Allah and to be good to the Muslims who were with him. He would say: Fight in the name of Allah and in the way of Allah. Fight against those who disbelieve in Allah. Make a holy war, do not embezzle the spoils; do not break your pledge; and do not mutilate (the dead) bodies; do not kill the children. When you meet your enemies who are polytheists, invite them to three courses of action. If they respond to any one of these, you also accept it and withold yourself from doing them any harm. Invite them to (accept) Islam; if they respond to you, accept it from them and desist from fighting against them. Then invite them to migrate from their lands to the land of Muhairs and inform them that, if they do so, they shall have all the privileges and obligations of the Muhajirs. If they refuse to migrate, tell them that they will have the status of Bedouin Muilims and will be subjected to the Commands of Allah like other Muslims, but they will not get any share from the spoils of war or Fai' except when they actually fight with the Muslims (against the disbelievers). If they refuse to accept Islam, demand from them the Jizya. If they agree to pay, accept it from them and hold off your hands. If they refuse to pay the tax, seek Allah's help and fight them. When you lay siege to a fort and the besieged appeal to you for protection in the name of Allah and His Prophet, do not accord to them the guarantee of Allah and His Prophet, but accord to them your own guarantee and the guarantee of your companions for it is a lesser sin that the security given by you or your companions be disregarded than that the security granted in the name of Allah and His Prophet be violated When you besiege a fort and the besieged want you to let them out in accordance with Allah's Command, do not let them come out in accordance with His Command, but do so at your (own) command, for you do not know whether or not you will be able to carry out Allah's behest with regard to them.
Chapter 6
  • No. 4313: It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: Do not desire an encounter with the enemy; but when you encounter them, be firm.
  • No. 4314: It is narrated by Abu Nadr that he learnt from a letter sent by a man from the Aslam tribe, who was a Companion of the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) and whose name was `Abdullah b. Abu Aufa, to `Umar b. `Ubaidullah when the latter marched upon Haruriyya (Khawarij) informing him that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) in one of those days when lie was confronting the enemy waited until the sun had declined. Then he stood up (to address the people) and said: 0 ye men, do not wish for an encounter with the enemy. Pray to Allah to grant you security; (but) when you (have to) encounter them exercise patience, and you should know that Paradise is under the shadows of the swords. Then the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) stood up (again) and said: 0 Allah. Revealer of the Book, Disperser of the clouds, Defeater of the hordes, put our enemy to rout and help us against them.
Chapter 7
  • No. 4315: It is narrated on the authority of Ibn Abu Aufa that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) cursed the tribes (who had marched upon Medina with a combined force in 5 H) and said: 0 Allah, Revealer of the Book, swift in (taking) account, put the tribes to rout. 0 Lord, defeat them and shake them.
  • No. 4318: It is narrated on the authority of Anas that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said on the day of the Battle of Ubud: 0 Allah, if Thou wilt (defeat Muslims), there will be none on the earth to worship Thee
Chapter 8
  • No. 4319: It is narrated on the authority of `Abdullah that a woman was found killed in one of the battles fought by the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him). He disapproved of the killing of women and children.
  • No. 4320: It is narrated by Ibn `Umar that a woman was found killed in one of these battles; so the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) forbade the killing of women and children.
Chapter 9
  • No. 4321: It is reported on the authority of Sa'b b. Jaththama that the Prophet of Allah (may peace be upon him), when asked about the women and children of the polytheists being killed during the night raid, said: They are from them.
Chapter 10
  • No. 4324: It is narrated on the authority of `Abdullah that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) ordered the date-palms of Bann Nadir to be burnt and cut. These palms were at Buwaira. Qutaibah and Ibn Rumh in their versions of the tradition have added: So Allah, the Glorious and Exalted, revealed the verse:" Whatever trees you have cut down or left standing on their trunks, it was with the permission of Allah so that He may disgrace the evil-doers" (lix. 5).

The Hidayah on Islam and war[edit]

As attributed and quoted by T.P. Hughes. :Translation by Thomas Hughes in A Dictionary of Islam: Being a Cyclopaedia of the Doctrines, Rites, Ceremonies, and Customs, Together with the Technical and Theological Terms, of the Muhammadan Religion. W. H. Allen. 1885. 
  • The following is the teaching of the Hanafi school of Sunnis on the subject of Jihad, as given in the Hidayah...:--
    "The sacred injunction concerning war is sufficiently observed when it is carried on by any one party or tribe of Muslims, and it is then no longer of any force with respect to the rest. It is established as a divine ordinance, by the word of God, who said in the Qur’an, ‘Slay the infidels,’ and also by a saying of the Prophet, ‘War is permanently established until the Day of Judgment’ (meaning the ordinance respecting war). The observance, however, in the degree above mentioned, suffices, because war is not a positive injunction, as it is in its nature murderous and destructive, and is enjoined only for the purpose of advancing the true faith or repelling evil from the servants of God; and when this end is answered by any single tribe or party of Muslims making war, the obligation is no longer binding upon the rest, in the same manner as in the prayers for the dead-(if, however, no one Muslim were to make war, the whole of the Muslim, would incur the criminality of neglecting it) – and also because if the injunction were positive, the whole of the Muslims must consequently engage in war, in which case the materials for war (such as horses, armour, and so forth) could not be procured. Thus it appears that the observance of war as aforesaid suffices, except where there is a general summons (that is, where the infidels invade a Muslim territory, and the Imam for the time being issues a general proclamation requiring all persons to go forth to fight), for in this case war becomes a positive injunction with respect to the whole of the inhabitants, whether men or women, and whether the Imam be a just or an unjust person; and if the people of that territory be unable to repulse the infidels, then war becomes a positive injunction with respect to all in that neighbourhood; and if these also do not suffice it, then comes a positive injunction with respect to the next neighbours; and in same manner with respect to all the Muslims from east to west. The destruction of the sword is incurred by infidels, although they be not the first aggressors, as appears from various passages in the traditions which are generally received to this effect.
    • Hidayah, vol. Ii., p. 140 ff quoted from T.P. Hughes, Dictionary of Islam, p. 244
  • "It is not incumbent upon infants to make war, as they are objects of compassion; neither is it incumbent upon slaves or women, as the rights of the master, or of the husband, have precedence; nor is it so upon the blind, the maimed, or the decrepid, as such are incapable. If, however, the infidels make an attack upon a city or territory, in this case the repulsion of them is incumbent upon all Muslims, insomuch that a wife may go forth without consent of her husband, and a slave without the leave of his master, because war then becomes a positive injunction; and possession, either by bondage or by marriage, cannot come in competition with a positive injunction, as in prayer (for instance) or fasting.... When the Muslims enter the enemy’s country and besiege the cities or strongholds of the infidels, it is necessary to invite them to embrace the faith, because Ibn ‘Abbas relates of the Prophet that he never destroyed any without previously inviting them to embrace the faith. If, therefore, they embrace the faith, it is unnecessary to war with them, because that which was the design of the war is then obtained without war. The Prophet, moreover, has said we are directed to make war upon men only until such time as they shall confess, ‘There is no God but one God.’ But when they repeat this creed, their persons and properties are in protection (aman). If they do accept the call to the faith, they must then be called upon to pay jizyah, or capitation tax, because the Prophet directed the commanders of his armies so to do, and also because by submitting to this tax war is forbidden and terminated upon the authority of the Qur’an. (This call to pay capitation tax, however, respects only those from whom the capitation tax is acceptable, or, as to apostates and the idolaters of Arabia, to call upon them to pay the tax is useless, since nothing is accepted from them but embracing the faith, as it is thus commanded in the Qur’an). If those who are called upon to pay capitation tax consent to do so, they then become entitled to the same protection and subject to the same rules as Muslims because ‘Ali had declared infidels agree to a capitation tax only in order to render their blood the same as Muslims’ blood, and their property the same as Muslims’ property.
    • Hidayah, vol. Ii., p. 140 ff quoted from T.P. Hughes, Dictionary of Islam, p. 244-5
  • "It is not lawful to make war upon any people who have never before been called to the faith, without previously requiring them to embrace it, because the Prophet so instructed his commanders, directing them to call the infidels to the faith, and also because the people will hence perceive that they are attacked for the sake of religion, and not for the sake of taking their property, or making slaves of their children, and on this consideration it is possible that they may be induced to agree to the call, in order to save themselves from the troubles of war.
    • Hidayah, vol. Ii., p. 140 ff quoted from T.P. Hughes, Dictionary of Islam, p. 245
  • "If a Muslim attack infidels without previously calling them to the faith, he is an offender, because this is forbidden; but yet if he do attack them before thus inviting them and slay them, and take their property, neither fine, expiation, nor atonement are due, because that which protects (namely, Islam) does not exist in them, nor are they under protection by place (namely the Daru ‘l-Islam, or Muslim territory), and the mere prohibition of the act is not sufficient to sanction the exaction either of fine or of atonement for property; in the same manner as the slaying of the women or infant children of infidels is forbidden, but if, notwithstanding, a person were to slay such, he is not liable to a fine. It is laudable to call to the faith a people to whom a call has already come, in order that they may have the more full and ample warning; but yet this is not incumbent, as it appears in the Traditions that the Prophet plundered and despoiled the tribe of al-Mustaliq by surprise, and he also agreed with Asamah to make a predatory attack upon Qubna at an early hour, and to set it on fire, and such attacks are not preceded by a call.
    • Hidayah, vol. Ii., p. 140 quoted from T.P. Hughes, Dictionary of Islam, p. 245
  • "If the infidels, upon receiving the call, neither consent to it nor agree to pay capitation tax, it is then incumbent on the Muslims to call upon God for assistance, and to make war upon them, because God is the assistant of those who serve Him, and the destroyer of His enemies, the infidels, and it is necessary to implore His aid upon every occasion; the Prophet, moreover, commands us so to do. And having so done, the Muslims must then with God’s assistance attack the infidels with all manner of warlike engines (as the Prophet did by the people of Ta’if), and must also set fire to their habitations (in the same manner as the Prophet fired Baweera), and must inundate them with water and tear up their plantations and tread down their grain because by these means they will become weakened, and their resolution will fail and their force be broken; these means are, therefore, all sanctified by the law."
    • Hidayah, vol. Ii., p. 140 -153 quoted from T.P. Hughes, Dictionary of Islam, p. 245
  • "It is no objection to shooting arrows or other missiles against the infidels that there may chance to be among them a Muslim in the way either of bondage or of traffic, because the shooting of arrows and so forth among the infidels remedies a general evil in the repulsion thereof from the whole body of Muslims, whereas the slaying of a Muslim slave or a trader is only a particular evil, and to repel a general evil a particular evil must be adopted, and also because it seldom happens that the strongholds of the infidels are destitute of Muslims, since it is most probable that there are Muslims residing in them, either in the way of bondage or of traffic, and hence, if the use of missile weapons were prohibited on account of these Muslims, war would be obstructed. If the infidels in time of battle should make shields of Muslim children, or of Muslims, who are prisoners in their hands, yet there is no need on that account to refrain from the use of missile weapons, for the reason already mentioned. It is requisite, however, that the Muslims in using such weapons aim at the infidels, and not at the children or the Muslim captives, because, as it is impossible in shooting to distinguish precisely between them and the infidels, the person who discharges the weapon must make this distinction in his intention and design by aiming at the infidels, and not at the others, since this much is practicable, and the distinction must be made as far as is practicable."
    • Hidayah, vol. Ii., p. 140 -153 quoted from T.P. Hughes, Dictionary of Islam, p. 246
  • "If the Imam make peace with aliens, or with any particular tribe or body of them, and perceive it to be eligible for the Muslims, there need be no hesitation, because it is said in the Qur’an: ‘If the infidels be inclined to peace do ye likewise consent thereto,’ and also because the Prophet in the year of the punishment of Eubea, made a peace between the Muslims and the people of Mecca for the space of ten years; peace, moreover is war in effect where the interest of the Muslims requires it, since the design of war is the removal of evil, and this is obtained by means of peace: contrary to where peace is not to the interest of the Muslims, for it is not in that case lawful, as this would be abandoning war both apparently and in effect. It is here, however, proper to observe that it is not absolutely necessary to restrict a peace to the term above recorded (namely, ten years), because the end for which peace is made may be sometimes more effectually obtained by extending it to a longer term. If the Imam make peace with the aliens for a single term (namely, ten years), and afterwards perceive that it is most advantageous for the Muslim’s interest to break it, he may in that case lawfully renew the war after giving them due notice, because, upon a change of the circumstances which rendered peace advisable, the breach of peace is war, and the observance of it a desertion of war, both in appearance and also in effect, and war is an ordinance of God, and the forsaking of it is not becoming (to Muslims). It is to be observed that giving due notice to the enemy is in this case indispensably requisite in such a manner that treachery may not be induced, since this is forbidden. It is also requisite that such a delay be made in renewing the war with them, as may allow intelligence of the peace being broken off to be universally received among them, and for this such a time suffices as may admit of the king or chief of the enemy communicating the same to the different parts of their dominion, since by such a delay the charge of treachery is avoided.".."If the infidels act with perfidy in a peace, it is in such case lawful for the Imam to attack them without any previous notice, since the breach of treaty in this instance originates with them, whence there is no occasion to commence the war on the part of the Muslims by giving them notice. It would be otherwise, however, if only a small party of them were to violate the treaty by entering the Muslim territory and there committing robberies upon the Muslims, since this does not amount to a breach of treaty. If, moreover, this party be in force so as to be capable of opposition, and openly fight with the Muslims, this is a breach of treaty with respect to that party only, but not with respect to the rest of their nation or tribe, because, as this party have violated the treaty without any permission from their prince, the rest are not answerable for their act; whereas if they made their attack by permission of their prince, the breach of treaty would be regarded as by the whole, all being virtually implicated in it.
    • Hidayah, vol. Ii., p. 140 - 153 quoted from T.P. Hughes, Dictionary of Islam, p. 247
  • "If the Imam make peace with the aliens in return for property, there is no scruple; because since peace may be lawfully made without any such gratification it is also lawful in return for a gratification. This, however, is only where the Muslims stand in need of the property thus to be acquired; for if they be not in necessity, making peace for property is not lawful, since peace is a desertion of war both in appearance and in effect. It is to be observed that if the Imam receive this property by sending a messenger and making peace without the Muslim troops entering the enemy’s territory, the object of disbursement of it is the same as that of jizyah or capitation-tax; that is, it is to be expended upon the warriors and not upon the poor. If, however, the property be taken after the Muslims have invaded the enemy in this case it is as plunder, one-fifth going to the Imam and the remainder to be divided among the troops, as the property has in fact been taken by force in this instance. It is incumbent on the Imam to keep peace with apostates, and not to make war upon them, in order that they may have time to consider their situation, since it is to be hoped that they may again return to the faith. It is, therefore, lawful to delay fighting with them in a hope that they may again embrace Islam; but it is not lawful to take property from them. If, however, the Imam should take property from them, it is not incumbent upon him to return it, as such property is not in protection. If infidels harass the Muslims, and offer them peace in return for property, the Imam must not accede thereto as this would be a degradation of the Muslim honour, and disgrace would be attached to all the parties concerned in it; this, therefore, is not lawful except where destruction is to be apprehended, in which case the purchasing a peace with property is lawful, because it is a duty to repel destruction in every possible mode."
    • Hidayah, vol. Ii., p. 140 - 153 quoted from T.P. Hughes, Dictionary of Islam, p. 247-8

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