Women in Islam

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Girl Reciting the Qur'ān (Kuran Okuyan Kız), an 1880 painting by the Ottoman polymath Osman Hamdi Bey, whose works often showed women engaged in educational activities

The experiences of Muslim women vary widely between and within different societies. At the same time, their adherence to Islam is a shared factor that affects their lives to a varying degree and gives them a common identity that may serve to bridge the wide cultural, social, and economic differences between them.

Quotes[edit]

  • I often think that woman is more free in Islam than in Christianity. Woman is more protected by Islam than by the faith which preaches Monogamy. In Al-Quran the law about woman is more just and liberal. It is only in the last twenty years that Christian England, has recognized the right of woman to property, while Islam has allowed this right from all times.
    • Annie Besant, The Life and Teachings of Muhammad, Madras, 1932, pp. 25, 26.
  • That his (Muhammad's) reforms enhanced the status of women in general is universally admitted.
    • Hamilton Alexander Rosskeen Gibb, Mohammedanism, London, 1953, p. 33.
  • The so-called Muslim women’s movement is predicated on the idea that Muslim men, not Islam, have been responsible for the suppression of women’s rights. For this reason, Muslim feminists throughout the world are advocating a return to the society Muhammad originally envisioned for his followers. Despite differences in culture, nationalities, and beliefs, these women believe that the lesson to be learned from Muhammad in Medina is that Islam is above all an egalitarian religion. Their Medina is a society in which Muhammad designated women like Umm Waraqa as spiritual guides for the Ummah; in which the Prophet himself was sometimes publicly rebuked by his wives; in which women prayed and fought alongside the men; in which women like Aisha and Umm Salamah acted not only as religious but also as political—and on at least one occasion military—leaders; and in which the call to gather for prayer, bellowed from the rooftop of Muhammad’s house, brought men and women together to kneel side by side and be blessed as a single undivided community.
    • Reza Aslan, (2005). No god but God: The Origins, Evolution, and Future of Islam., p.136
  • Islam taught me that men and women are equal in the eyes of God. It is this message of Islam that has empowered me, has strengthened me, and has emboldened me. The Prophet’s wife, Bibi Khadija, was a rich and successful businesswoman. Throughout the Holy Koran, there is example after example of women as leaders, women being respected, women as equals. It is this tradition of Islam that has allowed me to battle for political and human rights, and strengthens me today.
  • In Islam, men and women are moral equals in God's sight and are expected to fulfill the same duties of worship, prayer, faith, almsgiving, fasting, and pilgrimage to Mecca. Islam generally improved the status of women compared to earlier Arab cultures, prohibiting female infanticide and recognizing women's full personhood. Islamic law emphasizes the contractual nature of marriage, requiring that a dowry be paid to the woman rather than to her family, and guaranteeing women's rights of inheritance and to own and manage property. Women were also granted the right to live in the matrimonial home and receive financial maintainance during marriage and a waiting period following death and divorce.
  • The emancipation of women, more than any other single issue, is the touchstone of difference between modernization and westernization. The emancipation of women is westernization; both for traditional conservatives and radical fundamentalists it is neither necessary nor useful but noxious, a betrayal of true Islamic values.
  • One cannot but ponder the question: What if the Arabs had been Christians? To me it seems certain that the fatalistic teachings of Muhammad and the utter degradation of women is the outstanding cause for the arrested development of the Arab. He is exactly as he was around the year 700, while we have kept on developing. Here, I think, is a text for some eloquent sermon on the virtues of Christianity.
  • Muslims have a very bad attitude to homosexuality, they're very intolerant … And women. For them women are second class citizens. What we are witnessing now is a clash of civilisations, not just between states but within them.
  • The real place of women is the house and she has been exempted from outdoor duties…She has however been allowed to go out of the house to fulfil her genuine needs, but whilst going out she must observe complete modesty. Neither should she wear glamorous clothes and attract attention, nor should she cherish the desire to display the charms of the face and the hand, nor should she walk in a manner which may attract attention of others. Moreover she should not speak to them without necessity, and if she has to speak she should not speak in a sweet and soft voice.
    • Abul A'la Maududi, Purdah and the status of Women in Islam, 1991, p. 140, Taj Company Ltd, Lahore, Pakistan.
  • [Women in Islamic countries] are exposed to male domination as a rule rather than as an exception... If anyone protests... as I have done, you are sure to be branded as a witch... What I demand is freedom for women from male domination and a uniform code... It that can be construed as blasphemy, I cannot help it.
    • Taslima Nasrin. In : The Sunday Observer. October 3, 1993. Quoted from Ram Swarup, Woman in Islam, 2000, p. 45.
  • ‘For the Quran says,’ declare the ulema of Deoband settling a matter to which we shall soon turn, ‘the husband is the master.’ Apologists by contrast never tire of telling us that no religion has given as high a place to women as Islam, that no body of law has given them as many rights as the shariah. Yes, at the time of marriage, a woman is given mehr which in theory is hers: in fact, it is customary to have the bride renounce it on the nuptial night itself, and, as we shall see, for this there is sanction from Allah Himself; and the word itself for dower— ujoor— is one at which humanists, to say nothing of feminists, will wince—for it means the hire paid for use of the woman. Yes, a daughter is entitled to a share in the estate of the father, but it is to be half that of a son. Yes, a woman’s evidence can be taken into account, but it is to count for one-half of that of a man. And so on. These rules of shariah are not fortuitous. They follow from the view of women which is set out in the Quran and Hadis— that they are to be second to men, that their function is to obey husbands and satisfy them in every particular, that they are deficient mentally, that they are ungrateful, that a woman advancing is the devil, that a woman receding is the devil, that they shall form the majority in Hell...
    • Arun Shourie - The World of Fatwas Or The Sharia in Action (2012, Harper Collins)[citation needed]
  • The education of women, in particular their being awakened to new values, their being trained for new professions, their being awakened to their rights—all this is anathema; it is held to be injurious to them, in fact it is declared to be the way to disrupting society and undermining Islam.
    • Arun Shourie - The World of Fatwas Or The Sharia in Action (2012, Harper Collins)[citation needed]
  • ‘The parents who send their daughters to college are the enemies of their daughters, not their friends,’ the Fatawa-i-Rahimiyyah declares, citing authorities to the effect that the friend is one who prepares one for the Hereafter, though doing so may inflict worldly loss. ‘There is no doubt,’ it declares, ‘that a collegiate girl becomes extremely free, purdahless, immodest and shameless. This is the general consequence of English education and college atmosphere.’ And ‘A girl who loses modesty loses everything,’ it says, citing the Hadis, ‘Modesty and faith—they are inseparable companions; when either of them is taken away, the other too goes away.’
    • Fatawa-i-Rahimiyyah quoted in Arun Shourie - The World of Fatwas Or The Sharia in Action (2012, Harper Collins)[citation needed]
  • "...you know, what Atiya Begum (Fyzee) of Bombay did at Educational Conference at Aligarh, she with other Muslimah cared nothing for..strong protest but came up openly and got up on the dais unveiled and delivered a strong speech demanding equal rights with men to go about on God's earth freely and openly...Another lady also delivered a strong speech....This movement and poor ...secretary of the conference did his best to send those suffragettes back into their place screened up for them. Failing in his efforts he left the hall himself! This movement among our ladies of the younger generation is very strong and men will have to vie way in the end. Turkish women and Egyptians have led the way and I think after a time ..things must settle down and parda will become ancient history..."

W[edit]

Quran[edit]

The Quran on Wikisource
  • Your wives are as a tilth unto you; so approach your tilth when or how ye will; but do some good act for your souls beforehand; and fear Allah. And know that ye are to meet Him (in the Hereafter), and give (these) good tidings to those who believe.
    • Quran 2:223
  • Quran (4:34) - "Men are the maintainers of women because Allah has made some of them to excel others and because they spend out of their property; the good women are therefore obedient, guarding the unseen as Allah has guarded; and (as to) those on whose part you fear desertion, admonish them, and leave them alone in the sleeping-places and beat them; then if they obey you, do not seek a way against them; surely Allah is High, Great."
  • Quran (38:44) - "And take in your hand a green branch and beat her with it, and do not break your oath..."
  • Lo! men who surrender unto Allah, and women who surrender, and men who believe and women who believe, and men who obey and women who obey, and men who speak the truth and women who speak the truth, and men who persevere (in righteousness) and women who persevere, and men who are humble and women who are humble, and men who give alms and women who give alms, and men who fast and women who fast, and men who guard their modesty and women who guard (their modesty), and men who remember Allah much and women who remember - Allah hath prepared for them forgiveness and a vast reward.
  • And covet not the thing in which Allah hath made some of you excel others. Unto men a fortune from that which they have earned, and unto women a fortune from that which they have earned. (Envy not one another) but ask Allah of His bounty. Lo! Allah is ever Knower of all things.
  • Men are in charge of women, because Allah hath made the one of them to excel the other, and because they spend of their property (for the support of women). So good women are the obedient, guarding in secret that which Allah hath guarded. As for those from whom ye fear rebellion, admonish them and banish them to beds apart, and scourge them. Then if they obey you, seek not a way against them. Lo! Allah is ever High, Exalted, Great.
  • Surah xxiv. 81:— "Speak to the believing women that they train their eyes, and observe continence; and that they display not their ornaments, wept those which are external; and that they throw their veils over their bosoms, and display not their ornaments, except to their husbands or their fathers, or their husbands' fathers, or their sons, or then- husbands' Sons, or their brothers, or their brothers' sons or their sisters' sons, or their women, or their slaves, or male domestics who have no natural force, or to children who note not women's nakedness. And let them not strike their feet together, so as to discover their hidden ornaments. (See Isaiah iii. 16.) And be ye all turned to God, O ye Believers! That it may be well with you"
    • Quran, quoted from T.P. Hughes, Dictionary of Islam
  • Surah lx. 10-12:—"O Believers! when believing women come over to you as refugees (Muhajirs), then make trial of them. God best knoweth their faith; but if ye have also ascertained their faith, let them not go beck to the infidels; they are not lawful for them, nor are the unbelievers lawful for these women. But give them back what they have spent for their dowers. No crime shall it be in you to marry them, provided ye give them their dowers. Do not retain any right in the infidel women, but demand back what you have spent for their dowers, and let the unbelievers demand back what they have spent for their wives. This is the ordinance of God which He ordaineth among you: and God is Knowing, Wise. And if any of your wives escape from you to the Infidels from whom ye afterwards take any spoil, then give to those whose wives shall have fled away, the like of what they shall have spent for their dowers; and fear God in whom ye believe. "O Prophet! when believing women come so thee, and pledge themselves that they will not associate aught with God, and that they will not steal or commit adultery, nor kill their children, nor bring scandalous charges, nor disobey thee in what is right, then plight thou thy faith to them, and ask pardon for them of God: for God Is Indulgent. Merciful!"
    • Quran, quoted from T.P. Hughes, Dictionary of Islam
  • Surah iv, 1:-"O Men! fear your Lord, who hath created you of one man (nafs, soul), and of him treated his wife, and from these twain hath spread abroad so many men and women. And fear ye God, in whose name ye ask mutual favours—and reverence the wombs that bare you. Verily is God watching you!
    • Quran, quoted from T.P. Hughes, Dictionary of Islam
  • Surah xxiv. 4—9:-"They who defame virtuous women, and bring not four witnesses, scourge them with fourscore stripes, and receive ye not their testimony for ever, for these are perverse persons.--- "Save those who afterwards repent and live virtuously; for truly God is Lenient, Merciful! "And they who shall accuse their wives, and have no witnesses but themselves, the testimony of each of them shall be a testimony by God four times repeated, that he is indeed of them that speak the truth. "And the fifth time that the malison of God be upon him, if he be of them that lie. "But it shall, avert the chastisement from her if she testify a testimony tour times repeated, by God, that he is of them that lie; "And a fifth time to call down the wrath of God on her, if he have spoken the truth."
    • Quran, quoted from T.P. Hughes, Dictionary of Islam
  • O you who believe! You are forbidden to inherit women against their will. Nor should you treat them with harshness, that you may take away part of the dowry you have given them - except when they have become guilty of open lewdness. On the contrary live with them on a footing of kindness and equity. If you take a dislike to them, it may be that you dislike something and Allah will bring about through it a great deal of good.
    • Quran, (4:19)
  • Quran (4:11) - (Inheritance) "The male shall have the equal of the portion of two females"
  • Quran (2:282) - (Court testimony) "And call to witness, from among your men, two witnesses. And if two men be not found then a man and two women."
  • Quran (2:228) - "and the men are a degree above them [women]"
  • Quran (5:6) - "And if ye are unclean, purify yourselves. And if ye are sick or on a journey, or one of you cometh from the closet, or ye have had contact with women, and ye find not water, then go to clean, high ground and rub your faces and your hands with some of it"
  • Quran (2:223) - "Your wives are as a tilth unto you; so approach your tilth when or how ye will..."
  • Quran (4:3) - "Marry women of your choice, Two or three or four".
  • Quran (53:27) - "Those who believe not in the Hereafter, name the angels with female names."
  • Quran (4:34) - "Men are in charge of women, because Allah hath made the one of them to excel the other, and because they spend of their property (for the support of women). So good women are the obedient, guarding in secret that which Allah hath guarded. As for those from whom ye fear rebellion, admonish them and banish them to beds apart, and scourge them. Then if they obey you, seek not a way against them."
  • Quran (2:228) - "and the men are a degree above them [women]".
  • Quran (33:59) - "Tell thy wives and thy daughters and the women of the believers to draw their cloaks close round them..."
  • Quran (33:33) - "And [women] abide quietly in your homes..."
  • Quran (2:223) - "Your wives are as a tilth unto you; so approach your tilth when or how ye will."
  • Quran (66:5) - "Maybe, his Lord, if he divorce you, will give him in your place wives better than you, submissive, faithful, obedient, penitent, adorers, fasters, widows and virgins"
  • Men have authority over women because God has made the one superior to the other, and because they spend their wealth to maintain them. Good women are obedient. They guard their unseen parts because God has guarded them. As for those whom you fear disobedience, admonish them and send them to beds apart and beat them. Then if they obey you, take no further action against them. Surely God is most high.
    • Quran 4:34
  • Women who are divorced shall wait, keeping themselves apart, three (monthly) courses. And it is not lawful for them that they should conceal that which Allah hath created in their wombs if they are believers in Allah and the Last Day. And their husbands would do better to take them back in that case if they desire a reconciliation. And they (women) have rights similar to those (of men) over them in kindness, and men are a degree above them. Allah is Mighty, Wise.
    • Quran 2:228
  • Women are Worth Half of Men
  • Call in two male witnesses from among you, but if two men cannot be found, then one man and two women whom you judge fit to act as witnesses.
    • Quran 2:282
  • “Allah directs you in regard of your Children’s (inheritance): to the male, a portion equal to that of two females…. These are settled portions ordained by Allah.
    • Quran 4:11

Hadith and other Islamic texts[edit]

Ahadith on Wikisource
  • Take my advice with regard to women: Act kindly towards women, for they were created from a rib, and the most crooked part of a rib is its uppermost. If you attempt to straighten it; you will break it, and if you leave it alone it will remain crooked; so act kindly toward women.
  • O People, it is true that you have certain rights with regard to your women, but they also have right over you. If they abide by your right then to them belongs the right to be fed and clothed in kindness. Do treat your women well and be kind to them for they are your partners and committed helpers.
  • On 'Id ul Fitr or 'Id ul Adha Allah's Apostle (peace be upon him) went out to the Musalla. After finishing the prayer, he delivered the sermon and ordered the people to give alms. He said, "O people! Give alms." Then he went towards the women and said. "O women! Give alms, for I have seen that the majority of the dwellers of Hell-Fire were you (women)." The women asked, "O Allah's Apostle! What is the reason for it?" He replied, "O women! You curse frequently, and are ungrateful to your husbands. I have not seen anyone more deficient in intelligence and religion than you. O women, some of you can lead a cautious wiseman astray." Then he left. And when he reached his house, Zainab, the wife of Ibn Mas`ud, came and asked permission to enter It was said, "O Allah's Apostle! It is Zainab." He asked, 'Which Zainab?" The reply was that she was the wife of Ibn Mas'ud. He said, "Yes, allow her to enter." And she was admitted. Then she said, "O Prophet of Allah! Today you ordered people to give alms and I had an ornament and intended to give it as alms, but Ibn Mas`ud said that he and his children deserved it more than anybody else." The Prophet replied, "Ibn Mas`ud had spoken the truth. Your husband and your children had more right to it than anybody else."
    • Muhammad narrated Abu Said Al-Khudri, in Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 2, Book 24, Number 541
  • A man came to the Prophet (peace be upon him) and said: I have found a woman of rank and beauty, but she does not give birth to children. Should I marry her? He said: No. He came again to him, but he prohibited him. He came to him third time, and he (the Prophet) said: Marry women who are loving and very prolific, for I shall outnumber the peoples by you.
    • Muhammad narrated Ma'qil ibn Yasar, in Abu Dawud, Book 11, Number 2045
  • It is narrated on the authority of 'Abdullah b. Umar that the Messenger of Allah observed: O womenfolk, you should give charity and ask much forgiveness for I saw you in bulk amongst the dwellers of Hell. A wise lady among them said: Why is it, Messenger of Allah, that our folk is in bulk in Hell? Upon this the Holy Prophet observed: You curse too much and are ungrateful to your spouses. I have seen none lacking in common sense and failing in religion but (at the same time) robbing the wisdom of the wise, besides you. Upon this the woman remarked: What is wrong with our common sense and with religion? He (the Holy Prophet) observed: Your lack of common sense (can be well judged from the fact) that the evidence of two women is equal to one man, that is a proof of the lack of common sense, and you spend some nights (and days) in which you do not offer prayer and in the month of Ramadan (during the days) you do not observe fast, that is a failing in religion. This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Abu Tahir with this chain of transmitters.
    • Muhammad Sahih Muslim, Book 001, Number 0142
  • The Prophet said, "Isn't the witness of a woman equal to half of that of a man?" The women said, "Yes." He said, "This is because of the deficiency of a woman's mind."
    • Muhammad narrated Abu Said Al-Khudri, in Bukhari, Volume 3, Book 48, Number 826
  • When I got married, Allah's Apostle said to me, "What type of lady have you married?" I replied, "I have married a matron' He said, "Why, don't you have a liking for the virgins and for fondling them?" Jabir also said: Allah's Apostle said, "Why didn't you marry a young girl so that you might play with her and she with you?
    • Muhammad narrated Jabir bin 'Abdullah, in Bukhari, Volume 7, Book 62, Number 17
  • "I have not left any calamity more detrimental to mankind than women."
    • The Teaching of Muhammad on women, as given in the Traditions, quoted from T.P. Hughes: Dictionary of Islam.
  • "A bad omen is found in a woman, a house, or a horse.
    • The Teaching of Muhammad on women, as given in the Traditions, quoted from T.P. Hughes: Dictionary of Islam.
  • "The best women are those that ride on camels, and the virtuous women of the Quraish are these who are affectionate to young children and who are most careful of their husband's property."
    • The Teaching of Muhammad on women, as given in the Traditions, quoted from T.P. Hughes: Dictionary of Islam.
  • "The world and all things in it are valuable: but more valuable than all is a virtuous woman."
    • The Teaching of Muhammad on women, as given in the Traditions, quoted from T.P. Hughes: Dictionary of Islam.
  • "Look to your actions and abstain from the world and from women, for verily the first sin which the children of Israel committed was on account of women."
    • The Teaching of Muhammad on women, as given in the Traditions, quoted from T.P. Hughes: Dictionary of Islam.
  • "God will reward the Muslim who, having beheld the beauties of a woman, shuts his eyes."
    • The Teaching of Muhammad on women, as given in the Traditions, quoted from T.P. Hughes: Dictionary of Islam.
  • "Do not visit the houses of men when they are absent from their homes, for the devil circulates within you like the blood in your veins. It was said, 'O Prophet, in your veins also?' He replied, 'My veins also. But God has given me power over the devil and I am free from wickedness.'"
    • The Teaching of Muhammad on women, as given in the Traditions, quoted from T.P. Hughes: Dictionary of Islam.
  • "Two women must not sit together, because the one may describe the other to her husband, so that you might say the husband had seen her himself."
    • The Teaching of Muhammad on women, as given in the Traditions, quoted from T.P. Hughes: Dictionary of Islam.
  • "Do not follow up one look at a woman with another, for verily the first look is causable, but the next is unlawful."
    • The Teaching of Muhammad on women, as given in the Traditions, quoted from T.P. Hughes: Dictionary of Islam.
  • Sahih Bukhari (88:219) - "Never will succeed such a nation as makes a woman their ruler."
  • Sahih Bukhari (72:715) - "Aisha said, 'I have not seen any woman suffering as much as the believing women'"
  • Sahih Muslim (4:2127) - (Aisha said:) "He struck me on the chest which caused me pain."
  • Abu Dawud (2141) - "Iyas bin ‘Abd Allah bin Abi Dhubab reported the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) as saying: Do not beat Allah’s handmaidens, but when ‘Umar came to the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) and said: Women have become emboldened towards their husbands, he (the Prophet) gave permission to beat them."
  • Abu Dawud (2142) - "The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: A man will not be asked as to why he beat his wife."
  • Abu Dawud (2126) - "A man from the Ansar called Basrah said: 'I married a virgin woman in her veil. When I entered upon her, I found her pregnant. (I mentioned this to the Prophet).' The Prophet (peace_be_upon_him) said: 'She will get the dower, for you made her vagina lawful for you. The child will be your slave. When she has begotten (a child), flog her'"
  • Sahih Bukhari (82:828) - (Aisha said): "Abu Bakr came to towards me and struck me violently with his fist and said, 'You have detained the people because of your necklace'. But I remained motionless as if I was dead... although that hit was very painful".
  • Sahih Bukhari (6:301) - "[Muhammad] said, 'Is not the evidence of two women equal to the witness of one man?' They replied in the affirmative. He said, 'This is the deficiency in her intelligence.'"
  • Sahih Bukhari (6:301) - - "[Muhammad said] 'Isn't it true that a woman can neither pray nor fast during her menses?' The women replied in the affirmative. He said, 'This is the deficiency in her religion.'"
  • Sahih Bukhari (62:81) - "The Prophet said: "'The stipulations most entitled to be abided by are those with which you are given the right to enjoy the (women's) private parts (i.e. the stipulations of the marriage contract).'"
  • Sahih Muslim (4:1039) - "A'isha said [to Muhammad]: 'You have made us equal to the dogs and the asses'"
  • Abu Dawud (2:704) - "...the Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him) said: When one of you prays without a sutrah, a dog, an ass, a pig, a Jew, a Magian, and a woman cut off his prayer, but it will suffice if they pass in front of him at a distance of over a stone's throw."
  • Al-Tirmidhi 3272 - "When Allah's Messenger was asked which woman was best he replied, 'The one who pleases (her husband) when he looks at her, obeys him when he gives a command, and does not go against his wishes regarding her person or property by doing anything of which he disapproves'."
  • Kash-shaf (the revealer) of al-Zamkhshari (Vol. 1, p. 525) - [Muhammad said] "Hang up your scourge where your wife can see it"
  • Reliance of the Traveller (Islamic Law) M10.11 - Dealing with a Rebellious Wife - When a husband notices signs of rebelliousness in his wife (whether in words, as when she answers him coldly when she used to do so politely, or he asks her to come to bed and she refuses, contrary to her usual habit; or whether in acts, as when he finds her averse to him when she was previously kind and cheerful), he warns her in words ("Your obeying me is religiously obligatory). If she commits rebelliousness, he keeps from sleeping (having sex) with her without words, and may hit her, but not in a way that injures her... it is permissible for him to hit her he believes that hitting her will bring her back to the right path.
  • "Women, dogs, and donkeys annul a man’s prayer"
    • in Musnad Ibn Hanbal, vol. 2, p. 2992
  • Ishaq 734 - "As for Ali, he said, 'Women are plentiful, and you can easily change one for another.'"
  • Ishaq 878 - "From the captives of Hunayn, Allah's Messenger gave [his son-in-law] Ali a slave girl called Rayta and he gave [future Caliph] Uthman a slave girl called Zaynab and [future Caliph] Umar a girl to whom Umar gave to his son."
  • Ibn Ishaq 693 - "Then the apostle sent Sa-d b. Zayd al-Ansari, brother of Abdu'l-Ashal with some of the captive women of Banu Qurayza to Najd and he sold them for horses and weapons."
  • Al-Tirmidhi 3272 - "When Allah's Messenger was asked which woman was best he replied, 'The one who pleases (her husband) when he looks at her, obeys him when he gives a command, and does not go against his wishes regarding her person or property by doing anything of which he disapproves'."
  • Tabari 8:117 - The fate of more captured farm wives, whom the Muslims distributed amongst themselves as sex slaves: "Dihyah had asked the Messenger for Safiyah when the Prophet chose her for himself... the Apostle traded for Safiyah by giving Dihyah her two cousins. The women of Khaybar were distributed among the Muslims."
  • Tabari 9:137 - "Allah granted Rayhana of the Qurayza to Muhammad as booty."
  • Ishaq 969 - "Lay injunctions on women kindly, for they are prisoners with you having no control of their persons."
  • Tabari 9:1754 - "Treat women well, for they are [like] domestic animals with you and do not possess anything for themselves."
  • Narrated Abu Said Al-Khudri: The Prophet said, "Isn't the witness of a women equal to half that of a man?" The women said "yes". He said "This is because of the deficiency of the women's mind."
    • Sahih Bukhari 3:48:826
  • O womenfolk, you should ask for forgiveness for I saw you in bulk amongst the dwellers of Hell. A wise lady said: Why is it, Allah’s Apostle, that women comprise the bulk of the inhabitants of Hell? The Prophet observed: ‘You curse too much and are ungrateful to your spouses. You lack common sense, fail in religion and rob the wisdom of the wise.’ Upon this the woman remarked: What is wrong with our common sense? The Prophet replied, ‘Your lack of common sense can be determined from the fact that the evidence of two women is equal to one man. That is a proof.
    • Sahih Muslim 1:142
  • Narrated 'Aisha: The things which annul the prayers were mentioned before me. They said, "Prayer is annulled by a dog, a donkey and a woman (if they pass in front of the praying people)." I said, "You have made us (i.e. women) dogs. I saw the Prophet praying while I used to lie in my bed between him and the Qibla. Whenever I was in need of something, I would slip away. for I disliked to face him."
    • Sahih Bukhari 1:9:490
  • Narrated 'Aisha: The things which annual prayer were mentioned before me (and those were): a dog, a donkey and a woman. I said, "You have compared us (women) to donkeys and dogs. By Allah! I saw the Prophet praying while I used to lie in (my) bed between him and the Qibla. Whenever I was in need of something, I disliked to sit and trouble the Prophet. So, I would slip away by the side of his feet."
    • Sahih Bukhari 1:9:493, See Also Sahih Bukhari 1:9:486, Sahih Muslim 4:1032, Sahih Muslim 4:1034, Sahih Muslim 4:1038, Sahih Muslim 4:1039 004:1039 adds "and the asses"
  • Narrated Abdullah ibn Abbas: Ikrimah reported on the authority of Ibn Abbas, saying: I think the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) said: When one of you prays without a sutrah, a dog, an ass, a pig, a Jew, a Magian, and a woman cut off his prayer, but it will suffice if they pass in front of him at a distance of over a stone's throw.
    • Sunan Abu Dawud 2:704
  • Narrated Anas: The Prophet stayed for three rights between Khaibar and Medina and was married to Safiya. I invited the Muslim to h s marriage banquet and there wa neither meat nor bread in that banquet but the Prophet ordered Bilal to spread the leather mats on which dates, dried yogurt and butter were put. The Muslims said amongst themselves, "Will she (i.e. Safiya) be one of the mothers of the believers, (i.e. one of the wives of the Prophet ) or just (a lady captive) of what his right-hand possesses" Some of them said, "If the Prophet makes her observe the veil, then she will be one of the mothers of the believers (i.e. one of the Prophet's wives), and if he does not make her observe the veil, then she will be his lady slave." So when he departed, he made a place for her behind him (on his and made her observe the veil.
    • Sahih Bukhari 5:59:524
  • From the captives of Hunayn, Allah’s Messenger gave [his son-in-law] Ali a slave girl called Baytab and he gave [future Caliph] Uthman a slave girl called Zaynab and [future Caliph] Umar another.
    • Ishaq:593
  • And now, people, you acquire certain rights over your wives, and they do you. The right you acquire over them is that they should not let someone you hate sleep in your beds, and not to commit a manifest obscenity [or adultery]. If they do [commit it], then God has given you permission to leave them alone in their beds and give them a beating, though not too hard. If they give over, they get their provision and clothing with kindness; I command you good-will for your wives, for they are your captives(1) that do not own anything of their own. You have taken them by the faithfulness of God, and made their sexual organs lawful for you by the words of God."[12]
  • *Ibn Hisham, al-Sira al-nabawiyya (Cairo, 1963), 4:251.
  • Narrated Mu'awiyah ibn Haydah: I said: Apostle of Allah, how should we approach our wives and how should we leave them? He replied: Approach your tilth when or how you will, give her (your wife) food when you take food, clothes when you clothe yourself, do not revile her face, and do not beat her.
    • Sunan Abu Dawud 11:2138
  • If a woman offered one of her breasts to be cooked and the other to be roasted, she still will fall short of fulfilling her obligations to her husband. And besides that if she disobeys her husband even for a twinkling of an eye, she would be thrown in the lowest part of Hell, except she repents and turns back.
    • Tuffaha, Ahmad Zaky, Al-Mar'ah wal- Islam, Dar al-Kitab al-Lubnani, Beirut, first edition, 1985, p. 176. It is also quoted in Al-Musanaf by Abu Bakr Ahmad Ibn 'Abd Allah Ibn Mousa Al-Kanadi who lived 557H., vol. 1 part 2, p. 255.
  • It was narrated that from Musawir Al Himyari from his mother that: she heard Umm Salamah say: “I heard the Messenger of Allah say: 'Any woman who dies when her husband is pleased with her, will enter Paradise.' ”(Hasan)
    • Sunan Ibn Majah 3:9:1854
  • There are three (persons) whose prayer will not be accepted, nor their virtues be taken above: The runaway slave until he returns back to his master, the woman with whom her husband is dissatisfied, and the drunk until he becomes sober.
    • Al-Suyuti commenting on Quran 4:34
  • Whosoever female dies while her husband is pleased with her, will enter Paradise.
    • Mishkat al-Masabih Book I, Section 'Duties of husband and wife', Hadith No. ii, 60
  • The prophet once said to a woman: 'Watch how you treat your husband for he is your Paradise and your Hell.
    • Kanz- el-'Ummal, Volume 22, Hadith Number 868
  • Abdullah bin Abu Awfa said “...the messenger of Allah said: '... If [the husband] asks her (for intimacy) even if she is on her camel saddle, she should not refuse.'” (Hasan)
    • Sunan Ibn Majah 3:9:1853
  • The prophet of Allah said: When a man calls his wife to satisfy his desire, let her come to him though she is occupied at the oven.
    • Mishkat al-Masabih Book I, Section 'Duties of husband and wife', Hadith No. 61
  • Now then, O people, you have a right over your wives and they have a right over you. You have [the right] that they should not cause anyone of whom you dislike to tread on your beds; and that they should not commit any open indecency. If they do, then Allah permits you to shut them in separate rooms and to beat them, but not severely. If they abstain from [evil], they have the right to their food and clothing in accordance with the custom. Treat women well, for they are [like] domestic animals with you and do not possess anything for themselves. You have taken them only as a trust from Allah, and you have made the enjoyment of their persons lawful by the word of Allah, so understand and listen to my words, O people. I have conveyed the Message, and have left you with something which, if you hold fast to it, you will never go astray; that is, the Book of Allah and the sunnah of his Prophet. Listen to my words, O people, for I have conveyed the Message and understand [it]. Know for certain that every Muslim is a brother of another Muslim, and that all Muslims are brethren. It is not lawful for a person [to take] from his brother except that which he has given him willingly, so do not wrong yourselves. O Allah, have I not conveyed the message?
    • Al-Tabari, Vol. 9, p. 113, No. 1754
  • Narrated 'Aisha: The things which annual prayer were mentioned before me (and those were): a dog, a donkey and a woman. I said, "You have compared us (women) to donkeys and dogs. By Allah! I saw the Prophet praying while I used to lie in (my) bed between him and the Qibla. Whenever I was in need of something, I disliked to sit and trouble the Prophet. So, I would slip away by the side of his feet."
    • Sahih Bukhari 1:9:493, See Also Sahih Bukhari 1:9:486, Sahih Muslim 4:1032, Sahih Muslim 4:1034, Sahih Muslim 4:1038, Sahih Muslim 4:1039 004:1039 adds "and the asses"
  • Narrated 'Aisha: The things which annul the prayers were mentioned before me. They said, "Prayer is annulled by a dog, a donkey and a woman (if they pass in front of the praying people)." I said, "You have made us (i.e. women) dogs. I saw the Prophet praying while I used to lie in my bed between him and the Qibla. Whenever I was in need of something, I would slip away. for I disliked to face him."
    • Sahih Bukhari 1:9:490
  • It was narrated from 'Abdullah bin 'Amr: that the Prophet said: “When anyone of you gets a new wife, a servant, or an animal, let him take hold of the forelock and say: Allahumma inni as`aluka min khayriha wa khayri ma jubilat 'alaihi, wa 'audhu bika min sharriha wa sharri ma jubilat `alaih (O Allah, I ask You for the goodness within her and the goodness that she is inclined towards, and I seek refuge with you from the evil to which she is inclined).' ” (Hasan)
    • Sunan Ibn Majah 3:9:1918

Birth control, fertility and celibacy[edit]

  • Narrated Ma'qil ibn Yasar: A man came to the Prophet (peace be upon him) and said: I have found a woman of rank and beauty, but she does not give birth to children. Should I marry her? He said: No. He came again to him, but he prohibited him. He came to him third time, and he (the Prophet) said: Marry women who are loving and very prolific, for I shall outnumber the peoples by you.
    • Sunan Abu Dawud 11:2045
  • It was narrated from Aishah that: the Messenger of Allah said: “Marriage is part of my sunnah, and whoever does not follow my sunnah has nothing to do with me. Get married, for I will boast of your great numbers before the nations. Whoever has that means, let him get married, and whoever does not, then he should fast for it will diminish his desire.” (Hasan)
    • Sunan Ibn Majah 3:9:1846
  • It was narrated from Samurah that: the Messenger of Allah forbade celibacy. Zaid bin Akhzam added: “And Qatadah recited: 'And indeed We sent Messengers before you (O Muhammad ), and made for them wives and offspring.'”(Sahih)
    • Sunan Ibn Majah 3:9:1849
  • It was narrated that: Sa'd said: “The Messenger of Allah disapproved of Uthman bin Maz'un's desire to remain celibate; if he had given him permission, we would have gotten ourselves castrated.” (Sahih)
    • Sunan Ibn Majah 3:9:1848
  • It was narrated from Abu Hurairah that: the Messenger of Allah said: “Marry, for I will boast of your great numbers.”(Sahih)
    • Sunan Ibn Majah 3:9:1863
  • Marry women who will love their hus­bands and be very prolific, for I want you to be more numerous than any other people.
    • Quoted from T.P. Hughes: Dictionary of Islam, p.314, who refers to book 13 of Mishkatu'l Masa­bih ("nic­hes for lamps [of the tradition]", a compilation of Sunni tradit­ions by the 12th-century Imam Husain al-Baghaw­i, expanded in the 14th century by Shaykh Waliuddin). Quoted from Elst, Koenraad. (1997) The Demographic Siege

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

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