Jupiter

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For the Roman god, see Jupiter (mythology).
Jupiter shall emerge, be patient, watch again another night, the Pleiades shall emerge,
They are immortal, all those stars both silvery and golden shall shine out again,
The great stars and the little ones shall shine out again, they endure … ~ Walt Whitman

Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest planet in the Solar System. It is a gas giant with mass one-thousandth of that of the Sun but is two and a half times the mass of all the other planets in the Solar System combined. Jupiter is classified as a gas giant along with Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. Together, these four planets are sometimes referred to as the Jovian or outer planets. The planet was known by astronomers of ancient times.


CONTENT : A - F , G - L , M - R , S - Z , See also , External links

Quotes[edit]

Quotes are arranged alphabetically by author

A - F[edit]

Tycho's supernova - The star [Tycho's supernova] was at first like Venus and Jupiter, giving pleasing effects; but as it then became like Mars, there will next come a period of wars, seditions, captivity and death of princes, and destruction of cities, together with dryness and fiery meteors in the air,pestilence, and venomous snakes. Lastly, the star became like Saturn, and there will finally come a time of want, death, imprisonment and all sorts of sad things. - Tycho Brahe.
Zoning of Jupiter on a copper engraving -...Saturnus leed, and Jupiter is tyn,
And Venus coper, by my fader kyn! - Geoffrey Chaucer.
  • I wol yow telle, as was me taught also,
    The foure spirites and the bodies sevene,
    By ordre, as ofte I herde my lord hem nevene.
    The firste spirit quiksilver called is,
    The seconde orpyment, the thridde, ywis,
    Sal armonyak, and the firthe brimstoon.
    The bodys sevene eek, lo! hem heer anoon:
    Sol gold is, and Luna silver we threpe,
    Mars iren, Mercurie quyksilver we clepe,
    Saturnus leed, and Jupiter is tyn,
    And Venus coper, by my fader kyn!
Left to right - Sun, Jupiter, Uranus and Neptune - After it comes Jupiter which moves in a twelve-year long revolution. Next is Mars, which goes round biennially. An annual revolution holds the fourth place, in which as we have said is contained the Earth along with the lunar sphere which is like an epicycle. In fifth place Venus returns every nine months. - Nicolaus Copernicus.
The Solar System consists of eight "planets" Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.... - Definition by International Astronomical Union (IAU)
  • The universe is globe-shaped, either because that is the most perfect shape of all, needing no joint, an integral whole; or because that is the most capacious of shapes, which is most fitting because it is to contain and preserve all...The first and highest of all is the sphere of the fixed stars, which contains itself and all things, and is therefore motionless. It is the location of the universe, to which the motion and position of all the remaining stars is referred. For though some consider that it also changes in some respect, we shall assign another cause for its appearing to do so in our deduction of the Earth's motion. There follows Saturn, the first of the wandering stars, which completes its circuit in thirty years. After it comes Jupiter which moves in a twelve-year long revolution. Next is Mars, which goes round biennially. An annual revolution holds the fourth place, in which as we have said is contained the Earth along with the lunar sphere which is like an epicycle. In fifth place Venus returns every nine months. Lastly, Mercury holds the sixth place, making a circuit in the space of eighty days. In the middle of all is the seat of the Sun. For who in this most beautiful of temples would put this lamp in any other or better place than the one from which it can illuminate everything at the same time? Aptly indeed is he named by some the lantern of the universe, by others the mind, by others the ruler. Trismegistus called him the visible God, Sophocles' Electra, the watcher over all things. Thus indeed the Sun as if seated on a royal throne governs his household of Stars as they circle around him. Earth also is by no means cheated of the Moon's attendance, but as Aristotle says in his book On Animals the Moon has the closest affinity with the Earth. Meanwhile the Earth conceives from the Sun, and is made pregnant with annual offspring. We find, then, in this arrangement the marvellous symmetry of the universe, and a sure linking together in harmony of the motion and size of the spheres, such as could be perceived in no other way. For here one may understand, by attentive observation, why Jupiter appears to have a larger progression and retrogression than Saturn, and smaller than Mars, and again why Venus has larger ones than Mercury; why such a doubling back appears more frequently in Saturn than in Jupiter, and still more rarely in Mars and Venus than in Mercury; and furthermore why Saturn, Jupiter and Mars are nearer to the Earth when in opposition than in the region of their occultation by the Sun and re-appearance. Indeed Mars in particular at the time when it is visible throughout the night seems to equal Jupiter in size, though marked out by its reddish colour; yet it is scarcely distinguishable among stars of the second magnitude, though recognized by those who track it with careful attention.
  • We find then in this arrangement an admirable harmony of the world, and a dependable, harmonious interconnexion of the motion and the size of the paths, such as otherwise cannot be discovered. For here the penetrating observer can note why the forward and the retrograde movement of Jupiter appears greater than that of Saturn, and smaller than that of Mars, and again greater with Venus than with Mercury; and why such retrogression appears oftener with Saturn than with Jupiter, less often with Mars and Venus than with Mercury. Moreover, why Saturn, Jupiter, and Mars, when they rise in the evening, appear greater than when they disappear and reappear [with the sun]...And all this results from the same cause, namely the motion of the earth.
  • Formation of the Solar System: Every 12 years Jupiter returns to the same position in the sky; every 370 days it disappears in the fire of the Sun in the evening to the west, 30 days later it reappears in the morning to the east
The Solar System's four giant planets against the Sun - The word planet comes from the Greek for “wanderer,” because the planets' positions change relative to those of the stars. The eight (formerly nine) recognized planets that orbit the Sun are, in order of increasing distance, Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn,Uranus, and Neptune. The first four are called terrestrial planets and the next four giant, or Jovian, planets.
  • The experiments that we will do with the LHC [Large Hadron Collider] have been done billions of times by cosmic rays hitting the earth.... They're being done continuously by cosmic rays hitting our astronomical bodies, like the moon, the sun, like Jupiter and so on and so forth. And the earth's still here, the sun's still here, the moon's still here. LHC collisions are not going to destroy the planet.
  • How much more passion than reason has Jupiter composed us? putting in, as one would say, “scarce half an ounce to a pound.

G - L[edit]

Altars of Jupiter and Juno. - ...however, he should have nothing in common with them, except this power of doing good, which communicates unto all, then we ought to acquiesce in the reasoning of the Egyptian priests, who raise altars to the Sun conjointly with Jupiter ; nay, rather we should assent to Apollo himself (long before them), who sits on the same throne with Jove,... - Julian (emperor).
Montage of Jupiter's four Galilean moons, in a composite image comparing their sizes and the size of Jupiter. From top to bottom: Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto. - Galileo claimed to have seen mountains on the Moon, to have proved the Milky Way was made up of tiny stars, and to have seen four small bodies orbiting Jupiter. These last, with an eye to getting a position in Florence, he quickly named 'the Mediciean Stars... - William Herschel.
Above the round domes of La Silla Observatory, three astronomical objects in the Solar System — Jupiter (top), Venus (lower left), and Mercury (lower right) ...First, That all Cœlestial Bodies whatsoever, have an attraction or gravitating power towards their own Centers,... -Robert Hook.
The orbit of the earth is a circle; round the spheres to which this circle belongs describe a dodecahedron; the spheres including this will give the orbit of Mars. Round Mars describe a tetrahedron; the circle including this will be orbit of Jupiter. Describe a cube round Jupiter’s orbit; … - Kepler.
I might then reap the rare reward of becoming famous, like the man who discovered the spots on Jupiter. I prefer, however, to keep silent. - Soren Kierkegaard.
  • I therefore concluded, and decided unhesitatingly, that there are three stars in the heavens moving about Jupiter, as Venus and Mercury about the Sun; which at length was established as clear as daylight by numerous other observations. These observations also established that there are not only three, but four, erratic sidereal bodies performing their revolutions round Jupiter.
  • Galileo claimed to have seen mountains on the Moon, to have proved the Milky Way was made up of tiny stars, and to have seen four small bodies orbiting Jupiter. These last, with an eye to getting a position in Florence, he quickly named 'the Mediciean Stars. But when all was finished, no one besides my brother could get a glimpse of Jupiter or Saturn, for the great length of the tube would not allow it to be kept in a straight line. This difficulty, however, was soon removed by substituting tin tubes.
  • I shall explain a System of the World differing in many particulars from any yet known, answering in all things to the common Rules of Mechanical Motions: This depends upon three Suppositions. First, That all Cœlestial Bodies whatsoever, have an attraction or gravitating power towards their own Centers, whereby they attract not only their own parts, and keep them from flying from them, as we may observe the Earth to do, but that they do also attract all the other Cœlestial bodies that are within the sphere of their activity; and consequently that not only the Sun and Moon have an influence upon the body and motion the Earth, and the Earth upon them, but that Mercury also Venus, Mars, Saturn and Jupiter by their attractive powers, have a considerable influence upon its motion in the same manner the corresponding attractive power of the Earth hath a considerable influence upon every one of their motions also. The second supposition is this, That all bodies whatsoever that are put into a direct and simple motion, will continue to move forward in a straight line, till they are by some other effectual powers deflected and bent into a Motion, describing a Circle, Ellipse, or some other more compounded Curve Line. The third supposition is: That these attractive powers are so much the more powerful in operating, by how much the nearer the body wrought upon is to their own Centers. Now what these several degrees are I have not yet experimentally verified; but it is a notion, which if fully prosecuted as it ought to be, will mightily assist the Astronomer to reduce all the Cœlestial Motions to a certain rule, which I doubt will never be done true without it. He that understands the nature of the Circular Pendulum and Circular Motion, will easily understand the whole ground of this Principle, and will know where to find direction in Nature for the true stating thereof. This I only hint at present to such as have ability and opportunity of prosecuting this Inquiry, and are not wanting of Industry for observing and calculating, wishing heartily such may be found, having myself many other things in hand which I would first complete and therefore cannot so well attend it. But this I durst promise the Undertaker, that he will find all the Great Motions of the World to be influenced by this Principle, and that the true understanding thereof will be the true perfection of Astronomy.
  • How much are we really in duty bound to pin our faith to ? Who will guarantee me that on Jupiter two and two do not make five?
  • The orbit of the earth is a circle; round the spheres to which this circle belongs describe a dodecahedron; the spheres including this will give the orbit of Mars. Round Mars describe a tetrahedron; the circle including this will be orbit of Jupiter. Describe a cube round Jupiter’s orbit; the circle including this will be Saturn. Now, inscribe in the earth’s orbit an icosahedron, the circle inscribed in it will be the orbit of Venus: inscribe an octahedron in the orbit of Venus: the circle inscribed in it will be Mercury’s orbit. This is the reason of number of planets.

M - R[edit]

Consider now the Milky Way. Here also we see an innumerable dust, only the grains of this dust are no longer atoms but stars; these grains also move with great velocities, they act at a distance one upon another, but this action is so slight at great distances that their trajectories are rectilinear; nevertheless, from time to time, two of them may come near enough together to be deviated from their course, like a comet that passed too close to Jupiter... - Henri Poincaré.
  • That the squares of the periodic times are proportion to the cubes of the major-axes. These laws were discovered by Kepler from observations made on Mars and stated by analogy as general laws, which, although not rigidly true, are sufficiently near to the truth to have led to the discovery of the law of attraction of the bodies of the solar system. The deviation from complete accuracy is due to the facts, that the planets are not of inappreciable mass, that, in consequence, they disturb each other's orbits about the Sun, and, by their action on the Sun itself, cause the periodic time of each to be shorter than if the Sun were a fixed body, in the subduplicate ratio of the mass of the Sun to the sum of the masses of the Sun and Planet; these errors are appreciable although very small, since the mass of the largest of the planets, Jupiter, is less than 1/1000th of the Sun's mass.
  • This [Diamond] gem is appropriate as first half of [[[w:Leo|Leo]]’ precious crystal, because Jupiter, the mutable influence on the sign at this point, seems, when viewed from Earth, to give off a yellow light.
...The heavenly bodies, or the spheres or whorls in which they lie, are arranged one within another in the following order:
1. The Fixed Stars.
2. Saturn.
3. Jupiter.
4. Mars.
5. Mercury.
6. Venus.
7. The Sun.
8. The Moon.
This order is as good as any other that can be framed under a geocentric hypothesis... - Plato.
  • The Spirits survey the heavens and the earth and all the harmonious motions of the universe. They see the heavenly bodies set in revolving whorls, which, whorl within whorl, combine to form the Spinning-whorl on the Spindle of Necessity; and the Goddess holds the spindle on her knee, and spins the thread which the Fates wind, unwind and cut. The heavenly bodies, or the spheres or whorls in which they lie, are arranged one within another in the following order:
    1. The Fixed Stars.
    2. Saturn.
    3. Jupiter.
    4. Mars.
    5. Mercury.
    6. Venus.
    7. The Sun.
    8. The Moon.
    This order is as good as any other that can be framed under a geocentric hypothesis
  • As the whorls differ from one another in respect of “ breadth of rim”, the first and outermost whorl is that which has its circular rim the broadest, and the sixth whorl comes next to it in regard to breadth of rim; and, proceeding in order of breadth, the fourth whorl comes third, and the eighth fourth, and the seventh fifth, and the fifth sixth, and the third seventh, and the second eighth.' Thus we have now a new classification of the heavenly bodies, in the following sequence:
    1. The Fixed Stars.
    2. Venus.
    3. Mars.
    4. The Moon.
    5. The Sun.
    6. Mercury.
    7. Jupiter.
    8. Saturn.
  • Consider now the Milky Way. Here also we see an innumerable dust, only the grains of this dust are no longer atoms but stars; these grains also move with great velocities, they act at a distance one upon another, but this action is so slight at great distances that their trajectories are rectilinear; nevertheless, from time to time, two of them may come near enough together to be deviated from their course, like a comet that passed too close to Jupiter. In a word, in the eyes of a giant, to whom our Suns were what our atoms are to us, the Milky Way would only look like a bubble of gas.

S - Z[edit]

Jupiter, the biggest planet in our solar system is called as 'Guru Graham' in Sanskrit. This planet is related to the intellect of humans. Hence it is called as Guru (Budha Graha). The planet Jupiter, changes from one Raashi (12 astrological signs.... - Ganapathy Sachchidananda Swamiji.
They shall not long possess the sky, they devour the stars only in apparition,
Jupiter shall emerge, be patient, watch again another night, the Pleiades shall emerge,
They are immortal, all those stars both silvery and golden shall shine out again,
The great stars and the little ones shall shine out again, they endure,
The vast immortal suns and the long-enduring pensive moons shall again shine,
Their dearest child mournest though only for Jupiter?
Considerest though alone the burial of the stars.
  • The sum of yesterdayes conferences were an examination of the Principles of Ptolemy and Copernicus, and which of their opinions is the more probable and rational; that, which affirmeth the sub¬stance of the Cœlestial bodies to be ingenerable, incorruptible, un-alterable, impassible, and in a word, exempt from all kind of change, save that of local, and therefore to be a fifth essence, quite different from this of our Elementary bodies, which are generable, corruptible, alterable, or else the other, which taking away such deformity from the parts of the World, holdeth the Earth to en¬joy the same perfections as the other integral bodies of the universe; and esteemeth it a moveable and erratick Globe, no lesse than the Moon, Jupiter, Venus, or any other Planet.
  • They shall not long possess the sky, they devour the stars only in apparition,
    Jupiter shall emerge, be patient, watch again another night, the Pleiades shall emerge,
    They are immortal, all those stars both silvery and golden shall shine out again,
    The great stars and the little ones shall shine out again, they endure,
    The vast immortal suns and the long-enduring pensive moons shall again shine,
    Their dearest child mournest though only for Jupiter?
    Considerest though alone the burial of the stars.

Alien Life Imagined: Communicating the Science and Culture of Astrobiology[edit]

The music of the spheres - The Pythagorean harmony of the spheres lives on to this day. In his Natural History (circa AD77), the Roman scientist and noble man Pliny the Elder considered formed by the earth and Moon to be a tone; Moon to Mercury a semi-tone; Mercury to Venus, a semi-tone; Venus to the Sun, a minor third; Sun to Mars, a tone, Mars to Jupiter, a semi-tone; Jupiter to Saturn, a semi-tone;... - Christiaan Huygens.
The great man [Galileo in 1610 on 24 and 25 April] was asked to demonstrate the Jupiter moons in the spyglass. Not one among the eminent guests was convinced of their existence. The crude nature of the mysterious gadget did not help. But many were blinded by bias — they refused to look down the tube...Kepler was the only weighty voice raised in defence...The revolution in science begins with the discovery of these ‘alien’ worlds and the names of Galileo and Kepler have come to symbolize that revolution. - Christiaan Huygens.
That the planets are not without Water, is not made probable by the late observations: For about Jupiter are observed some spots of a darker hue than the rest of his Body, which by their continual change show themselves to be Clouds... - Christiaan Huygens.
Each planet, according to its dimension, has a certain length of planetary life, the youth and age of which include the following eras :- a Sun like state; a state like that of Jupiter or Saturn, but when much heat but little light is evolved; a condition like that of our earth; and lastly, the stage through which our Moon is passing, which may be regarded as planetary decrepitude... -Proctor.

Christian Huygens in: Mark Brake Alien Life Imagined: Communicating the Science and Culture of Astrobiology, Cambridge University Press, 8 November 2012

  • To the ancient eye, without the use of spyglass, only seven of these ‘wanderers’ or ‘planets’ as they were known, could be seen among the thousands of lights that bejewelled the firmament. The 'Wanderers' were different. True, like the fixed stars, the Sun, Moon, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn all seemed to revolve once a day around the Earth. But the Plants also had a peculiar motion.
    • In: p. 9
  • ...cosmos was complete. Its out limit was the stellar sphere. Just inside was Saturn, since it was the planet that took longest to move around the Zodiac. Next came Jupiter and Mars, set in order of decreasing orbital period, the time taken to make one complete orbit about the central Earth. Innermost was the Moon, since the lunar orbit placed it closest to us. The remaining three planets of Sun, Venus and Mercury, posed a problem. All three vagabond stars made their seeming journey about the Earth, in the same common time of one year.
    • In: p. 11
  • The term ‘superior planet’ was used by those bodies (Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn) that lay behind the Sun’s orbit. The system gave no idea of the sheer size of the orbits, and no account of inconsistencies of the planets in their apparent motion. But these mathematical features were to develop later.
    • In: p. 11
  • The great man [Galileo in 1610 on 24 and 25 April] was asked to demonstrate the Jupiter moons in the spyglass. Not one among the eminent guests was convinced of their existence. The crude nature of the mysterious gadget did not help. But many were blinded by bias — they refused to look down the tube...Kepler was the only weighty voice raised in defense...The revolution in science begins with the discovery of these ‘alien’ worlds and the names of Galileo and Kepler have come to symbolize that revolution.
    • In: p. 74
  • Back in 1610, perhaps the greatest discovery Galileo had made with the spyglass was the essentially four new worlds in the Jupiter system. The four new planets were the first four moons of Jupiter their significance to the case of Copernicanism was set up by Galileo. The moons in orbit around Jupiter also exposed the ancient fallacy that the earth was the center around which all revolved.
    • In: p. 105
  • He discovered the moons of Jupiter, the phases of Venus, the [[terrestrial nature of the Moon, and thousands upon thousands of stars never picked out before. Galileo's findings provided immense impetus to the Copernican viewpoint on the cosmos and also boosted Atomist speculation. May be this universe is, as the Atomists said, a cosmos vast in scale, perhaps even infinite, and abundantly seeded with life throughout.
    • In: p. 108
  • That the planets are not without Water, is not made probable by the late observations: For about Jupiter are observed some spots of a darker hue than the rest of his Body, which by their continual change show themselves to be Clouds...Mars too is found not to be without his dark spots... but whether he has clouds or no, we have not had the same opportunity of observing as in Jupiter. Since ‘its certain that Earth and Jupiter have their water and clouds, there is no reason why the other Planets should be without them. I can’t say that they are exactly of the same nature with our Water, but they should be liquid their use requires, as their beauty does that they should be clear. For this Water of ours, in Jupiter or Saturn, would be frozen up instantly for reason of the vast distance of the Sun. Every Planet therefore must have its Waters of such a temper as to be proportione’d to its heat.
    • In: p. 111
    • Huygens was aware of the fact that the kind of water found on Earth would instantly freeze on Jupiter, and vaporize on Venus.He observed dark and bright spots on the surface of some of the planets, such as Mars and Jupiter , and suggested that the spots could only be justified by the existence of water and ice on those worlds.
  • Attendants of Jupiter and Saturn are of the same nature with our Moon, as going round them, and being carry'd with them round the Sun just as the Moon is with the Earth. Their Likeness reaches to other things too,...Therefore whatsoever we can with reason affirm or fancy of our Moon must be supposed with very little alteration to belong to the Guards of Jupiter and Saturn, as having no reason to be at all inferior to that.
    • In: p. 112
  • If the Moon is not inhabited, as observations suggest based on the absence of water and an atmosphere, this says little about life on other worlds, save for those of similar rank, i.e., other moons. Which means that other planets, especially those superior and majestic worlds, such as Saturn and Jupiter, should be equal in all ways to the Earth, intelligent inhabitants included.
    • In: p. 112
  • Surely no astronomer worthy the name can regard this grand orb as the cinder-centred globe of watery matter so contemptuously dealt with by one who, be remembered thankfully was not an astronomer...Jupiter in a sense a Sun...a source of heat which serves its satellites on which life – even such forms of life as we are familiar with – may still exist...[the gas giant] must be intended one day the abode of noble races.
  • Each planet, according to its dimension, has a certain length of planetary life, the youth and age of which include the following eras :- a Sun like state; a state like that of Jupiter or Saturn, but when much heat but little light is evolved; a condition like that of our earth; and lastly, the stage through which our Moon is passing, which may be regarded as planetary decrepitude.
  • Proctor had banished Solar system life from any moon or planet other than Earth. On Mars it had disappeared, though, 'the development of higher forms of life may have been less complete than on our earth'. Jupiter lay in wait. Lifeless still, it was evolving an enabling habitat, one that would embrace 'creatures far higher in the scale of being than any that have inhabited, or may inhabit, the earth. For Proctor, in time even the Sun will harbour life.
    • In: p. 185
  • Rather under-represented in moons, petite in mass and magnitude, Earth does not fare well in comparison with gas giants Jupiter and Saturn, and especially the Sun. Rejecting the idea the giant planets are poorly placed, Flammarion even so admits atmospheres of other plants are ‘essentially different’, from those on Earth, as there is no evidence extant to show they are ‘of a chemical composition analogous to our planet.
    • In: p. 193

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