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Vladivostok (Russian: Владивосто́к) is the largest city and the administrative centre of Primorsky Krai, Russia. The city is located around the Golden Horn Bay on the Sea of Japan, covering an area of 331.16 km2, with a population of 606,561 residents, up to 812,319 residents in the urban agglomeration. Vladivostok is the second-largest city in the Far Eastern Federal District, as well as the Russian Far East, after Khabarovsk.
Vladivostok is the largest Russian port on the Pacific Ocean, and the chief economic, scientific and cultural centre of the Russian Far East, as well as an important tourism centre in Russia.
- The modern-day territory of Primorsky Krai, whose capital is Vladivostok, was formerly part of the Qing’s Manchurian homeland but was annexed by the Tsarist empire in 1860 following China’s defeat at the hands of Britain and France in the Second Opium War. It was handed over under one of three “unequal” treaties China was forced to sign with Russia, France and Britain that year, in an agreement that also saw the Kowloon peninsula being added to the colony of Hong Kong.
- Eduardo Baptista, "Why Russia’s Vladivostok celebration prompted a nationalist backlash in China" in South China Morning Post (2 July 2020)
- The unofficial capital of the Russian Far East and one of Russia's most important commercial ports and naval bases, Vladivostok ('Master the East') is also a thoroughly charming city, with a gorgeous, hilly setting, striking architecture and numerous verdant islands and sandy bays along its Pacific coastline.
- With the completion of the Trans-Siberian Railroad in 1905, the development of Vladivostok and the entire Russian Far East accelerated rapidly. After the loss of Port Arthur to Japan in 1905, Vladivostok became, and remains today, Russia's primary naval base on the Pacific.
- Background on Vladivostok and the Soviet Far East
- Robert T. Hartmann Papers at the Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library
- When Vladivostok, the main city of the Russian Far East, marked the 160th anniversary of its founding on July 2, it resulted in a wave of abuse from Chinese social media users across various platforms who claimed that the territory of Primorsky Krai of which Vladivostok is the administrative capital, historically belonged to China. While these claims were not officially endorsed by China’s foreign ministry, they come at a time when the country has been particularly aggressive in the context of its territorial disputes in the region.
- Neha Banka, "Explained: Why 160-year-old Vladivostok has a Chinese connection" in The Indian Express (7 July 2020)
- For leaders in Beijing and, needless to say, Moscow, Vladivostok is indisputably part of Russia. A series of agreements since 1991 have demarcated their 2,615-mile-long border, clearly fixing what belongs to whom.
- The city, with a population of about 600,000, is now a popular destination for Chinese tourists and also traders, who have turned a once down-at-the-heels market on Sportivnaya Street into a vibrant commercial district.
- Andrew Higgins, "Vladivostok Lures Chinese Tourists (Many Think It’s Theirs)" in The New York Times (23 July 2016)
- Before submerging into the Soviet garrison life, Vladivostok was known for being a “sin city” of the Russian East. Its geographic importance greased the wheels for expansion and the city grew rapidly after being linked to Moscow, almost 6,000 miles away, by the Trans-Siberian Railway in 1903. The streets were packed with Chinese and Japanese sailors, as well as smugglers and runaways of all sorts who stored their wealth, hid from persecution, and spent money in local pubs. Some streets reeked with the smoke of Chinese opium and were saturated with vodka and red caviar.
- As the Kremlin feels the threat of Sinification, it has started pouring money into regional development with the unofficial capital at Vladivostok becoming a stage for displaying Moscow’s ambitions.
- Dmitriy Frolovskiy, "Vladivostok: The Many Lives of Russia’s Far Eastern Capital" in The Diplomat (3 September 2016)
- Vladivostok has long maintained Russia’s connections with North Korea. Despite United Nations prohibitions on employing North Koreans, many still work in the area and send home their ruble wages to a regime starved for hard currency.
- William Kim, Christine Lee, "North Korean Cyberwarfare Officer Arrested in Vladivostok While Seeking Asylum" in Voice of America (10 February 2022)
- It’s an open secret that many North Koreans continue to work. But a few years ago, if you walked the streets of Vladivostok, you would see quite a lot of North Koreans. Now, I do see them from time to time, but not as many as before.
- Vladivostok, officially closed off to foreigners during Soviet times, is no longer marooned on Russia’s eastern edge. The city has come to symbolise a shift in Russia’s geopolitical strategy, as Putin casts his glance away from the west and towards the east.
- Nadia Beard, "Vladivostok, baby: can a glitzy new mega-casino attract Asia's wealthy elite?" in The Guardian (18 December 2015)