# Probability

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**Probability** describes an attitude of mind towards some proposition of whose truth we are not certain. The proposition of interest is usually of the form "Will a specific event occur?"

## Quotes[edit]

- This statistical regularity in moral affairs fully establishes their being under the presidency of law.
**Man is now seen to be an enigma only as an individual; in the mass he is a mathematical problem.**

**Probability is the very guide of life.**- Cicero,
*De Natura*, 5, 12; reported in*Hoyt's New Cyclopedia Of Practical Quotations*(1922), p. 634. Quoted by Bishop Butler. Also used by Richard Hooker,*Ecclesiastical Polity*, Book I, Chapter VIII., and, Book II, Chapter VII. Found in John Locke,*Essays*, Book IV, Chapter XV. Also in Hobbes'*Leviathan*.

- Cicero,

- How often have I said to you that when you have eliminated the impossible, whatever remains, however improbable, must be the truth?
- Sherlock Holmes
*Sign of the Four*Chap. 6, p. 111, written by Arthur Conan Doyle

- Sherlock Holmes

**It’s probably better to have him inside the tent pissing out, than outside the tent pissing in.**- US President Lyndon Johnson, regarding FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover, as quoted in
*The New York Times*(31 October 1971).

- US President Lyndon Johnson, regarding FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover, as quoted in

**No human being can give an eternal resolution to another or take it from him**; If someone objects that then one might just as well be silent if there is no probability of winning others, he thereby has merely shown that although his life very likely thrived and prospered in probability and everyone of his undertakings in the service of probability went forward, he has never really ventured and consequently has never had or given himself the opportunity to consider that probability is an illusion, but to venture the truth is what gives human life and the human situation pith and meaning, to venture is the fountainhead of inspiration, whereas probability is the sworn enemy of enthusiasm, the mirage whereby the sensate person drags out time and keeps the eternal away, whereby he cheats God, himself, and his generation: cheats God of the honor, himself of liberating annihilation, and his generation of the equality of conditions.- Søren Kierkegaard,
*Four Upbuilding Discourses*(31 August 1844) in*Eighteen Upbuilding Discourses*p. 382.

- Søren Kierkegaard,

- The epistemological value of probability theory is based on the fact that chance phenomena, considered collectively and on a grand scale, create non-random regularity.
- Andrey Kolmogorov,
*Limit Distributions for Sums of Independent Random Variables*(1954), as translated by K. L. Chung

- Andrey Kolmogorov,

- As is known, the question of the objectivity or the subjectivity of probability has divided the world of science into two camps. Some maintain that there exist two types of probability, as above, others, that only the subjective exists, because regardless of what is supposed to take place,
*we*cannot have full knowledge of it. Therefore, some lay the uncertainty of future events at the door of our knowledge of them, whereas others place it within the realm of the events themselves.- Stanisław Lem, "
*De Impossibilitate Vitae*and*De Impossibilitate Vitae Prognoscendi*", in*A Perfect Vacuum*(1971), tr. Michael Kandel (1978).

- Stanisław Lem, "

- In applying dynamical principles to the motion of immense numbers of atoms, the limitation of our faculties forces us to abandon the attempt to express the exact history of each atom, and to be content with estimating the average condition of a group of atoms large enough to be visible. This method... which I may call the statistical method, and which in the present state of our knowledge is the only available method of studying the properties of real bodies, involves an abandonment of strict dynamical principles, and an adoption of the mathematical methods belonging to the theory of probability. …
**If the actual history of Science had been different, and if the scientific doctrines most familiar to us had been those which must be expressed in this way, it is possible that we might have considered the existence of a certain kind of contingency a self evident truth, and treated the doctrine of philosophical necessity as a mere sophism.**- James Clerk Maxwell, "Introductory Lecture on Experimental Physics,"
*The Scientific Papers of James Clerk Maxwell*(1890) Vol. 2.

- James Clerk Maxwell, "Introductory Lecture on Experimental Physics,"

**Einstein's supreme greatness was in transforming physical thinking**from that of the culmination of classical physics about 1900 to that of quantum mechanics starting about 1925. ...**far more than anyone else, he caused physicists to think in terms of probabilities. He began to do this in his early work in thermodynamics, and he brought such thinking to its first great fruition in 1905 in his work on Brownian movement and in his first work on radiation, in which he introduced the concept of light quanta or photons.**Its second, even greater fruition was in his famous paper on the quantum theory of radiation in 1917.

That paper illustrated methods that have been in use almost without change ever since, even though the majority of the users have no knowledge that it was Einstein who propounded them. It was in this paper that**Einstein postulated the various transition possibilities between two states of a quantized system. ...quantum theory has existed ever since precisely for the purpose of evaluating these probabilities.**In this paper of 1917 Einstein postulated in particular the process known as stimulated emission, and inferred the properties of this process. This is the process employed in the... light maser or laser.- W. H. McCrea, as quoted by G. J. Whitrow,
*Einstein, the Man and His Achievement*(1973)

- W. H. McCrea, as quoted by G. J. Whitrow,

- To dwell upon the possibility of illness or disaster is equally poor policy, for you set up negative webs of probabilities that need not occur. You can theoretically alter your own past as YOU have known it, for time is no more something divorced from you than probabilities are. The past existed in multitudinous ways. You only experienced one probable past. By changing this past in your mind, now, in your present, you can change not only its nature but its effect, and not only upon yourself but upon others.
- Jane Roberts in
*Seth Speaks*, Session 566.

- Jane Roberts in

## See also[edit]

## External links[edit]

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