# Leonhard Euler

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**Leonhard Euler** (15 April 1707 – 18 September 1783) Swiss mathematician and physicist, considered to be one of the greatest mathematicians of all time.

- See also:

## Contents

## Quotes[edit]

**Madam, I have come from a country where people are hanged if they talk.**- In Berlin, to the Queen Mother of Prussia, on his lack of conversation in his meeting with her, on his return from Russia; as quoted in
*Science in Russian Culture : A History to 1860*(1963) Alexander Vucinich - Variant:
**Madame... I have come from a country where one can be hanged for what one says.**

- In Berlin, to the Queen Mother of Prussia, on his lack of conversation in his meeting with her, on his return from Russia; as quoted in

**Now I will have less distraction.**- Upon losing the use of his right eye; as quoted in
*In Mathematical Circles*(1969) by H. Eves

- Upon losing the use of his right eye; as quoted in

**Mathematicians have tried in vain to this day to discover some order in the sequence of prime numbers, and we have reason to believe that it is a mystery into which the human mind will never penetrate.**- As quoted in
*Calculus Gems*(1992) by G. Simmons

- As quoted in

**Since the fabric of the universe is most perfect and the work of a most wise Creator, nothing at all takes place in the universe in which some rule of maximum or minimum does not appear**… there is absolutely no doubt that every affect in the universe can be explained satisfactorily from final causes, by the aid of the method of maxima and minima, as it can be from the effective causes themselves … Of course, when the effective causes are too obscure, but the final causes are readily ascertained, the problem is commonly solved by the indirect method...- As quoted in
*The Anthropic Cosmological Principle*(1986) by John D. Barrow and Frank J. Tipler, p. 150

- As quoted in

**To those who ask what the infinitely small quantity in mathematics is, we answer that it is actually zero. Hence there are not so many mysteries hidden in this concept as they are usually believed to be.**- As quoted in
*Fundamentals of Teaching Mathematics at University Level*(2000) by Benjamin Baumslag, p. 214

- As quoted in

*La construction d'une machine propre à exprimer tous les sons de nos paroles , avec toutes les articulations , seroit sans-doute une découverte bien importante. … La chose ne me paroît pas impossible.*- It would be a considerable invention indeed, that of a machine able to mimic speech, with its sounds and articulations. … I think it is not impossible.
- Letter to Friederike Charlotte of Brandenburg-Schwedt (16 June 1761)
*Lettres à une Princesse d'Allemagne sur différentes questions de physique et de philosophie*, Royer, 1788, p. 265- As quoted in
*An Introduction to Text-to-Speech Synthesis*(2001) by Thierry Dutoit, p. 27; also in Fabian Brackhane and Jürgen Trouvain "*Zur heutigen Bedeutung der Sprechmaschine Wolfgang von Kempelens*" (in: Bernd J. Kröger (ed.):*Elektronische Sprachsignalverarbeitung 2009*,*Band 2 der Tagungsbände der 20. Konferenz "Elektronische Sprachsignalverarbeitung" (ESSV)*, Dresden: TUDpress, 2009, pp. 97–107)

*Introduction to the Analysis of the Infinite* (1748)[edit]

- Original title:
*Introductio in analysin infinitorum*. Translated as*Introduction to Analysis of the Infinite*(1988–89) by John Blanton (Book I ISBN 0387968245; Book II ISBN 0387971327) (online version).

- A function of a variable quantity is an analytic expression composed in any way whatsoever of the variable quantity and numbers or constant quantities.
- §4

*A conjecture about the nature of air* (1780)[edit]

*A conjecture about the nature of air, by which are to be explained the phenomenon which have been observed in the atmosphere (Conjectura circa naturam aeris, pro explicandis phaenomenis in atmosphaera observatis)*(1870) (online version).

*Quanquam nobis in intima naturae mysteria penetrare, indeque veras caussas Phaenomenorum agnoscere neutiquam est concessum: tamen evenire potest, ut hypothesis quaedam ficta pluribus phaenomenis explicandis aeque satisfaciat, ac si vera caussa nobis esset perspecta.***Although to penetrate into the intimate mysteries of nature and thence to learn the true causes of phenomena is not allowed to us, nevertheless it can happen that a certain fictive hypothesis may suffice for explaining many phenomena.**- §1

## Quotes about Euler[edit]

- Alphabetized by author

**He calculated without any apparent effort, just as men breathe, as eagles sustain themselves in the air.**- François Arago; Variant:
*Euler calculated without apparent effort, as men breathe, or as eagles sustain themselves in the wind.*

- François Arago; Variant:

- The most influential mathematics textbook of ancient times is easily named, for the
*Elements*of Euclid has set the pattern in elementary geometry ever since. The most effective textbook of the medieval age is less easily designated; but a good case can be made out for the*Al-jabr*of Al-Khwarizmi, from which algebra arose and took its name. Is it possible to indicate a modern textbook of comparable influence and prestige? Some would mention the*Géométrie*of Descartes or the*Principia*of Newton or the*Disquisitiones*of Gauss;**but in pedagogical significance these classics fell short of a work by Euler titled***Introductio in analysin infinitorum*.- Carl B. Boyer on Euler's
*Introduction to the Analysis of the Infinite*in "The Foremost Textbook of Modern Times" (1950)

- Carl B. Boyer on Euler's

**The**In originality and in the richness of its scope it ranks among the greatest of textbooks; but it is outstanding also for clarity of exposition. Published two hundred and two years ago, it nevertheless possesses a remarkable modernity of terminology and notation, as well as of viewpoint. Imitation is indeed the sincerest form of flattery.*Introductio*does not boast an impressive number of editions, yet its influence was pervasive.- Carl B. Boyer in "The Foremost Textbook of Modern Times" (1950)

- Euler calculated the force of the wheels necessary to raise the water in a reservoir … My mill was carried out geometrically and could not raise a drop of water fifty yards from the reservoir. Vanity of vanities! Vanity of geometry!
- Frederick the Great,
*Letters of Voltaire and Frederick the Great*(1927), translated by Richard Aldington, letter 221 from Frederick to Voltaire (25 November 1777)

- Frederick the Great,

- It is customary to consider Chebyshev, Gauss, Jacobi, and Legendre as the main creators of the theory of orthogonal polynomials. However, their contributions were directly influenced by Brouncker and Wallis who, in March of 1655, made discoveries which influenced the development of analysis for the next hundred years. Namely, Wallis found an infinite product of rational numbers converging to 4/π and Brouncker gave a remarkable continued fraction for this quantity. ...The only mathematician who understood the importance of these discoveries was Euler. ...he felt that the recovery of the original Brouncker's proof could open up new perspectives for analysis.
**As usual, Euler was right.**- Fritz Gesztesy,
*Spectral Theory and Mathematical Physics*in*Proceedngs of Symposia in Pure Mathematics*(2007) Vol.76, Part 2

- Fritz Gesztesy,

- Who has studied the works of such men as Euler, Lagrange, Cauchy, Riemann, Sophus Lie, and Weierstrass, can doubt that a great mathematician is a great artist? The faculties possessed by such men, varying greatly in kind and degree with the individual, are analogous with those requisite for constructive art. Not every mathematician possesses in a specially high degree that critical faculty which finds its employment in the perfection of form, hi conformity with the ideal of logical completeness; but every great mathematician possesses the rarer faculty of constructive imagination.
- E. W. Hobson, "Presidential Address British Association for the Advancement of Science" (1910) in:
*Nature,*Vol. 84, p. 290. Cited in: Moritz (1914, 182); Mathematics as a fine art

- E. W. Hobson, "Presidential Address British Association for the Advancement of Science" (1910) in:

**Read Euler: he is our master in everything.**- Pierre-Simon Laplace, as quoted in
*Calculus Gems*(1992) variant: Read Euler, read Euler. He is the master of us all.

- Pierre-Simon Laplace, as quoted in

- He was later to write that he had made some of his best discoveries while holding a baby in his arms surrounded by playing children.
- Richard Mankiewicz, in
*The Story of Mathematics*(2000), p. 142

- Richard Mankiewicz, in

**If we compared the Bernoullis to the Bach family, then Leonhard Euler is unquestionably the Mozart of mathematics**, a man whose immense output... is estimated to fill at least seventy volumes. Euler left hardly an area of mathematics untouched, putting his mark on such diverse fields as analysis, number theory, mechanics and hydrodynamics, cartography, topology, and the theory of lunar motion. ...Moreover, we owe to Euler many of the mathematical symbols in use today, among them*i, π, e,*and*f*(*x*). And as if that were not enough, he was a great popularizer of science...- Eli Maor,
*e: The Story of a Number*(1994)

- Eli Maor,

**Euler and Ramanujan are mathematicians of the greatest importance in the history of constants**(and of course in the history of Mathematics ...)

- It is the invaluable merit of the great Basle mathematician Leonard Euler, to have freed the analytical calculus from all geometric bounds, and thus to have established analysis as an independent science, which from his time on has maintained an unchallenged leadership in the field of mathematics.
- Thomas Reid, as quoted in
*Mathematical Maxims and Minims*(1988) by N. Rose

- Thomas Reid, as quoted in

- I discovered the works of Euler and my perception of the nature of mathematics underwent a dramatic transformation. I was de-Bourbakized, stopped believing in sets, and was expelled from the Cantorian paradise.
**I still believe in abstraction, but now I know that one ends with abstraction, not starts with it. I learned that one has to adapt abstractions to reality and not the other way around.**Mathematics stopped being a science of theories but reappeared to me as a science of numbers and shapes.

- Perhaps the most surprising thing about mathematics is that it is so surprising. The rules which we make up at the beginning seem ordinary and inevitable, but it is impossible to foresee their consequences. These have only been found out by long study, extending over many centuries.
**Much of our knowledge is due to a comparatively few great mathematicians such as Newton, Euler, Gauss, or Riemann**; few careers can have been more satisfying than theirs.**They have contributed something to human thought even more lasting than great literature, since it is independent of language.**- Edward Charles Titchmarsh as quoted in
*Mathematical Maxims and Minims*(1988) by N. Rose

- Edward Charles Titchmarsh as quoted in

## External links[edit]

- The Euler Archive
- Brief biography at the University of St Andrews, Scotland
- Leonhard Euler at the Notable Names Database
- Brief biography at Evansville College
- "Understanding Without Proof"
- Euler and "Fermat's Last Theorem"
- Euler's presentation of "The Seven Bridges of Königsberg"
- The Euler Archive
- List of topics named after Euler (at Wikipedia)